Kepesatan Pembangunan Ekonomi dan Dasar Tenaga Kerja di Sabah, 1960-an – 1980-an Rapid Economic Development and Labour Policies in Sabah, 1960’s – 1980’s

RAMLI DOLLAH, KAMARULNIZAM ABDULLAH

Abstract


Pembangunan ekonomi negeri yang pesat menyebabkan sektor ekonomi negeri Sabah bergantung kepada tenaga kerja asing dari negara Indonesia dan Filipina yang majoritinya bekerja secara tidak sah. Walau bagaimanapun, Kerajaan Persekutuan dan Negeri sejak awal lagi telah berusaha untuk mengurangkan kebergantungan tenaga kerja asing tanpa izin dengan mengambil beberapa inisiatif awal mengatasi masalah kekurangan tenaga kerja di negeri ini. Makalah ini melihat kepesatan pembangunan ekonomi negeri Sabah serta usaha-usaha yang diambil oleh pihak Kerajaan Negeri dan Persekutuan serta pihak swasta di negeri ini untuk mengatasi masalah kekurangan tenaga kerja pada awal kemerdekaan sehinggalah tahun 1980-an. Dua inisiatif utama dibincangkan, iaitu penubuhan Lembaga Kumpulan Wang Perpindahan tahun 1960-an dan penubuhan Sabah Immigrant Manpower Center 1980-an. Kedua- dua inisiatif menangani kekurangan tenaga kerja ini gagal mencapai matlamat. Keadaan ini menyebabkan cara terbaik menangani masalah kekurangan tenaga kerja dengan mendapatkan pekerja asing dari negara jiran terutamanya Indonesia dan Filipina yang majoritinya bekerja di negeri ini secara tidak sah. Trend kebergantungan kepada pekerja asing tanpa izin akhirnya menjadi elemen utama pembangunan ekonomi negeri Sabah pada hari ini.

 

Sabah rapid economic development has led to the heavy reliance on migrant workers from Indonesia and the Philippines, in which a majority of them are working illegally. However, the federal and state governments have been trying to reduce the dependency on undocumented migrant workers since the outset by taking several early initiatives to overcome the labour shortage in this state in Borneon Malaysia. This paper examines the economic development and the efforts the state has taken together with the federal government as well as the private sector in Sabah to cope with the labour shortage in the early days of independence until the 1980’s. Two major initiatives were discussed, namely the establishment of the Migration Fund Board in the 1960’s and Sabah Manpower Immigrant Centre in the 1980’s. Both initiatives have failed to achieve their goals in addressing labour shortage. As a consequence, the best way to deal with the problem of labour shortage was hiring migrant workers from neighbouring countries, particularly Indonesia and the Philippines and most of them had worked illegally. Therefore, the dependency on illegal migrant workers has eventually become a key element to the present-day economic development in Sabah.


Keywords


Sabah, ekonomi, kekurangan tenaga kerja, pekerja asing, dasar. Sabah, economy, labour shortage, migrant workers, policy.

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