Jurnal Borneo Arkhailogia (Heritage, Archaeology and History) https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA <p>The Jurnal Borneo Arkhailogia (JBA) is the journal of the Borneo Archaeological Research Unit (UPArk). Founded in 2016, and published its first issue in 2017. The scope of the JBA is the fields of archaeology heritage management, classical history and oral history which focuses on the area of Borneo and its adjacent islands, from ancient times to present-day...<a href="https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/about"><strong><em>read more</em></strong></a></p> <p><img src="/ojums/public/site/images/671008135055/JBA-Cover-2019.jpg" width="180" height="255"></p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Penyerahan manuskrip mensyaratkan bahawa manuskrip tidak pernah diterbitkan di tempat lain ataupun sedang dipertimbangkan untuk penerbitan oleh penerbit lain. 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If and when the article is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher ©Universiti Malaysia Sabah. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, without&nbsp;the prior written permission of the publisher.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to:</p> <address>Penerbit UMS,</address><address>Ground&nbsp;Floor Library,</address><address>Jalan&nbsp;UMS, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,</address><address>88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.</address><address><br>Tel: (+6088) 320000 Ext. 1015</address><address>Fax: (+6088) 320446 E-mail: penerbit@ums.edu.my</address> zainuddin@ums.edu.my (Zainuddin Baco) mohd.azri@ums.edu.my (Mohd Azri bin Ahmad) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 PEMBANGUNAN MASYARAKAT PERIBUMI PANTAI BARAT BORNEO UTARA DALAM CATATAN SEJARAH TERPILIH https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2844 <p>Penulis tempatan dan Eropah mempunyai catatan berkenaan perkembangan politik dan ekonomi masyarakat peribumi di Borneo Utara. Kesultanan Brunei memerintah pantai barat Borneo Utara dibantu oleh golongan pembesar Brunei yang dikenali sebagai wazir. Penulis Eropah juga menjelaskan bagaimana pembesar Brunei membantu kesultanan mengendalikan sistem pentadbiran di Borneo Utara. Mereka ini berperanan dalam memastikan urusan orang asli Borneo Utara. Namun, setelah SBUB menjajah Borneo Utara pada tahun 1881, pentadbiran kolonial mengubah corak pemerintahan menjadi eksploitasi ekonomi komersial.<br>Justeru, SBUB mengambil alih jajahan Kesultanan Brunei sehingga mencetuskan pemberontakan dalam kalangan masyarakat peribumi. Objektif penulisan makalah ini adalah untuk membincangkan perkembangan politik dan ekonomi serta reaksi masyarakat peribumi di pantai barat Borneo Utara semasa pemerintahan Kesultanan Brunei hingga pemerintahan Syarikat Borneo Utara Inggeris dari perspektif Eropah dan sejarawan tempatan. Makalah ini menggunakan sumber primer dan sekunder.<br><br><br>Local and European writers have notes on the political and economic development of indigenous peoples in North Borneo. The Sultanate of Brunei ruled the west coast of North Borneo assisted by a group of Brunei dignitaries known as Wazir. European writers also explain how Brunei dignitaries helped the sultanate in operating the administrative system in North Borneo. They play a role in ensuring the affairs of the natives of North Borneo. However, after SBUB colonized North Borneo in 1881, the colonial administration changed the pattern of government into a commercial economic exploitation. Thus, SBUB took over<br>the colony of the Sultanate of Brunei until it sparked an uprising among the natives. The objective of this paper is to discuss the political and economic developments as well as the reactions of indigenous peoples on the west coast of North Borneo during the reign of the Sultanate of Brunei to the rule of the British North Borneo Company from the perspective of European and local historians. This paper uses primary and secondary sources.</p> YUSRY SULAIMAN, BILCHER BALA Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2844 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 SEJARAH SISTEM PERBURUHAN DI BORNEO UTARA (1881-1941) https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2845 <p>Penghapusan amalan perhambaan mengakibatkan Borneo Utara tidak mempunyai sistem buruh yang teratur untuk mengatasi masalah kekurangan tenaga kerja. Namun, penguatkuasaan undang-undang membenarkan Syarikat Berpiagam Borneo Utara British (SBUB) memperkenalkan sistem buruh. Sistem buruh ini kemudian membolehkan SBUB merekrut tenaga kerja dan meningkatkan lagi pembangunan ekonomi di Borneo Utara. Objektif makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis pelaksanaan sistem buruh yang diperkenalkan di Borneo Utara oleh SBUB dari tahun 1881 hingga 1941. Makalah ini ditulis dengan merujuk kepada sumber utama yang diperoleh dari Arkib Negeri Sabah. Sumber rujukan yang digunakan termasuklah fail pentadbiran kolonial, British North Borneo Herald (BNBH), Pelbagai dan Warta Rasmi. Sumber sekunder seperti buku dan jurnal juga dirujuk sebagai sumber analisis perbincangan. Kajian ini mendapati terdapat dua jenis kontrak digunakan ke atas buruh-buruh yang bekerja di<br>Borneo Utara iaitu kontrak bertulis dan kontrak lisan. Kontrak bertulis yang wujud dalam bentuk indentur dan kontrak biasa akan diaplikasikan ke atas buruh-buruh imigran, manakala buruh tempatan akan dikenakan kontrak lisan.<br><br><br>The abolition of the practice of slavery resulted in North Borneo not having a well-organized labor system to address the problem of labor shortages. However, law enforcement allowed the British North Borneo Chartered Company (SBUB) to introduce a labor system. This labor system then enabled SBUB to recruit manpower and further enhance economic development in North Borneo. The objective of this paper is to analyze the implementation of the labor system introduced in North Borneo by SBUB from 1881 to 1941. This&nbsp; paper was written with reference to the main sources obtained from the Sabah State Archives. Sources include colonial<br>administrative files, British North Borneo Herald (BNBH), Miscellaneous and Official Gazette. Secondary sources such as books and journals are also referred to as discussion analysis sources. This study found that there are two types of contracts used on workers working in North Borneo, namely written contracts and oral contracts. Written contracts that exist in the form of indentures and ordinary contracts will be applied to immigrant workers while local workers will be subject to oral contracts.<br><br></p> SYAIB BIN AHMED, MAUREEN DE SILVA Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2845 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 ALI SYARIATI: PEMIKIRAN DAN GAGASANNYA TENTANG KONSEP RAUSYANFIKIR https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2846 <p>Rausyanfkir adalah refleksi daripada golongan intelektual berkenaan peranan dan tanggungjawab seorang intelektual. Konsep ini adalah berdasarkan tiga aspek, iaitu intelektualisme, ideologi dan idealisme. Konsep intelektualisme menjelaskan perbezaan antara istilah ‘intelektual’ dan ulama untuk mentakrifkan semula fungsi dan peranan intelektual. Aspek ideologi pula ialah seorang rausyanfkir perlu mengembalikan semula semangat Islam menerusi kaedah hermeneutik terhadap syarat ibadah, al-<br>Quran dan hadis. Sementara konsep idealisme ialah seorang rausyanfkir perlu berfikiran ‘manusia ideal’, iaitu yakin dengan ilmu pengetahuan serta kemampuan diri dan masyarakatnya. Rausyanfkir adalah konsep yang sering dibincangkan oleh Ali Syariati dalam setiap karya dan kuliah. Objektif makalah ini adalah untuk membincangkan pemikiran Ali Syariati berkenaan kepentingan intelektual dan pengaruhnya dalam pemikiran golongan belia sebelum Revolusi Iran 1978. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah perpustakaan dengan merujuk kepada sumber sekunder seperti buku dan jurnal. Penulisan makalah ini mendapati bahawa konsep rausyanfkir dalam pemikiran Ali Syariati mempunyai banyak kaitan dengan penjelmaan seorang intelektual yang menyedari isu-isu yang dihadapi oleh masyarakatnya tetapi pada masa yang sama tidak menafikan ajaran Islam dalam kehidupanya.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Rausyanfikir is a reflection from the intellectuals on the role and responsibilities of an intellectual. This concept is based on three aspects, namely intellectualism, ideology and idealism. The concept of intellectualism explains the difference between the terms ‘intellectual’ and scholarly to redefine the function and role of intellectuals. The ideological aspect is that a rausyanfikir needs to restore the spirit of Islam through hermeneutic methods on the conditions of ibadah, al-Quran and hadith. While the concept of idealism is a rausyanfikir need to think 'ideal man' that is confident in the knowledge and ability of himself and his society. Rausyanfikir is a concept that is often discussed by Ali Syariati in every work and lecture. The objective of this paper is to discuss Ali Syariati's thoughts on intellectual importance and his influence in the thinking of youths before the 1978 Iranian Revolution. This study uses the library method with reference to secondary sources such as books and journals. The finding of this paper is that the concept of rausyanfikir in the mind of Ali Syariati has a lot to do with the incarnation of an intellectual who is aware of the issues faced by his society but at the same time does not deny the teachings of Islam in his life.</em><br><br></p> NORFARAHANI BINTI ROSMAN, MOHD SHAUKHI BIN MOHD RADZI Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2846 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 DILEMA ANTARA PERBURUHAN DAN PERHAMBAAN: ANALISIS REALITI DI LADANG SAPONG, BORNEO UTARA (1881-1941) https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2847 <p>Ladang Sapong yang terletak di Residensi Pedalaman, Sabah pada awalnya dibuka sebagai kawasan eksperimen ladang tembakau sekitar tahun 1905. Pengurus pertama ladang ini ialah Frank Edward Lease. Sekitar tahun 1916 sehingga 1921, Ladang Sapong menjadi antara ladang terbesar di Borneo Utara. Oleh itu, objektif makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis sejarah persekitaran kerja para pekerja di Ladang Sapong semasa pentadbiran Syarikat Berpiagam Borneo Utara British (SBBUB) yang sering dikaitkan dengan persoalan bekerja sebagai buruh atau hamba. Sumber primer yang dirujuk sebagai perbincangan ialah dokumen dan surat-menyurat kolonial, akhbar, laporan tahunan pentadbir serta koleksi surat persendirian. Kajian mendapati bahawa buruh Jawa dan Cina yang bekerja di Ladang Sapong sekitar tahun 1910–1938 masih berada dalam keadaan yang daif. Walaupun pelbagai undang-undang buruh diperkenalkan, undang-undang tersebut sering dimanipulasi oleh majikan untuk<br>melakukan berbagai-bagai penindasan terhadap buruh.<br><br></p> <p><em>Sapong Farm located in the Inland Residence; Sabah was originally opened as an experimental area of tobacco plantations around 1905. The first manager of this property was Frank Edward Lease. Around 1916 until 1921, Sapong Estate became one of the largest estates in North Borneo. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the history of the working environment of workers in Sapong farm during the administration of the British North Borneo Chartered Company (BNBCC) which is often associated with the question of working as a laborer or slave. The primary sources referred to as discussions were colonial documents and correspondence, newspapers, administrators' annual reports as well as the collection of private letters. The study found that Javanese and Chinese workers who worked on the Sapong farm around 1910-1938 were still in poor condition. Although various labor laws were introduced, they were often manipulated by employers to inflict various oppressions on workers.</em></p> AMY AZUAN BIN ABDULLAH Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2847 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 SISTEM PENGANGKUTAN TRADISIONAL DI BORNEO UTARA SEBELUM ABAD KE-19 https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2848 <p>Perkembangan sistem pengangkutan dan perhubungan di Borneo Utara dipengaruhi oleh kegiatan ekonomi masyarakat setempat sama ada dari segi perdagangan, pemungutan hasil hutan, laut, dan pertanian. Sistem pengangkutan di Borneo Utara sangat penting untuk pembangunan ekonomi rakyatnya. Keadaan ini mendorong masyarakat tempatan untuk membina sistem pengangkutan mereka sendiri untuk tujuan kelangsungan aktiviti ekonomi harian mereka. Objektif makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis sejarah sistem pengangkutan tradisional di Borneo Utara sebelum abad ke-19. Kajian ini berdasarkan sumber utama seperti dokumen, surat khabar dan sumber sekunder. Makalah ini mendapati bahawa pengangkutan tradisional di Borneo Utara sebelum abad ke-19 terbahagi kepada dua, iaitu pengangkutan darat dan air. Setelah SBBU menjajah Borneo Utara mereka menukar sistem pengangkutan tradisional kepada sistem pengangkutan moden seperti kereta api, rangkaian jalan raya dan<br>juga kapal wap. Usaha ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk mempercepat pembangunan ekonomi di Borneo Utara.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>The development of the transportation and communication system in North Borneo was influenced by the economic activities of the local community in terms of trade, harvesting of forest products, sea and agriculture. The transportation system in North Borneo is very important for the economic development of its people. This situation encourages local communities to build their own transportation system for the purpose of continuing their daily economic activities. The objective of this paper is to analyze the history of the traditional transportation system in North Borneo before the 19th century. This study is based on primary sources, such as documents, newspapers and secondary sources. This paper finds that traditional transportation in North Borneo before the 19th century was divided into two, namely land and water transport. After SBBU colonized North Borneo they changed the traditional transportation system to modern transportation systems such as trains, road networks and even steamships. These efforts are being made to accelerate economic development in North Borneo.</em></p> JUVIANA JIMA Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2848 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 REAKSI MASYARAKAT DUSUN DI KOTA BELUD TERHADAP PENDUDUKAN JEPUN DI BORUNEO KITA (1942-1945) https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2849 <p>Pendudukan Jepun di Boruneo Kita berlaku kerana faktor ekonomi dan politik. Pendudukan Jepun pada awalnya mendapat reaksi positif dari penduduk tempatan. Namun, setelah Jepun menduduki Boruneo Kita, masyarakat tempatan mula melakukan protes setelah beberapa dasar ekonomi dan politik Jepun dianggap menindas masyarakat setempat. Artikel ini membincangkan reaksi masyarakat Dusun di Kota Belud semasa pendudukan Jepun di Boruneo Kita sekitar tahun 1942 hingga 1945. Kajian ini<br>menggunakan sumber lisan melalui temu ramah dengan penduduk tempatan. Selain itu, kaedah penyelidikan perpustakaan yang merujuk kepada dokumen arkib juga dilakukan untuk melengkapkan fakta tentang gerakan anti-Jepun di Boruneo Kita. Kajian ini mendapati bahawa masyarakat Dusun di Kota Belud pada awalnya menganggap Jepun melindungi dan membebaskan mereka dari penjajahan Barat. Namun, pentadbiran Jepun yang sering bertindak kejam selain merampas tanaman, mencetuskan<br>penentangan yang membawa kepada gerakan anti-Jepun. Kajian ini penting untuk memberi gambaran yang jelas tentang reaksi masyarakat tempatan terhadap pendudukan Jepun dari perspektif sumber lisan masyarakat Dusun di Kota Belud.</p> <p><br><br>The Japanese occupation of Boruneo Kita occurred due to economic and political factors. The Japanese occupation initially received a positive reaction from the locals. However, after Japan occupied Boruneo Kita, the local community began to protest after some Japanese economic and political policies were considered to oppress the local community. This article discusses the reaction of the Dusun community in Kota Belud during the Japanese occupation of Boruneo Kita around 1942 to 1945. This study uses oral sources through interviews with locals. In addition, library research methods referring to archival documents were also conducted to complement the facts about the anti-Japanese movement in Boruneo Kita. This study found that the Dusun community in Kota Belud initially considered the Japanese to protect and liberate them from Western occupation. However, the Japanese administration, which often acted brutally in addition to confiscating crops, sparked opposition, leading to anti-Japanese movements. This study is important to give a clear picture of the reaction of the local community to the Japanese occupation from the perspective of the oral sources of the Dusun community in Kota Belud.</p> JOSIETHA BINTI MIUN, MD SAFFIE ABDUL RAHIM Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2849 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 PERANAN PROTESTANT CHURCH IN SABAH (PCS) DALAM PERKEMBANGAN SOSIAL MASYARAKAT RUNGUS 1952-1993 DI KUDAT, SABAH https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2850 <p>Gereja Basel di Sabah berada di bawah naungan Pusat Misi Basel di Switzerland. Namun, disebabkan masalah kewangan Pusat Misi Basel, gereja Basel di Sabah ditadbir sendiri tanpa melibatkan bantuan kewangan daripada luar. Nama Gereja Basel Borneo kemudiannya ditukar menjadi Christian Church of Basel Malaysia (BCCM) pada tahun 1963. BCCM berperanan dalam mengembangkan agama Basel dalam kalangan masyarakat setempat, terutama etnik Rungus yang membawa kepada penubuhan Protestant Church in Sabah (PCS). Objektif makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis peranan PCS sebagai institusi<br>agama dalam pembangunan sosial masyarakat Rungus di Kudat dari tahun 1953 hingga 1993. Kajian ini dibuat berdasarkan sumber utama seperti dokumen, laporan tahunan dan surat khabar yang diperoleh dari Arkib Negeri Sabah. Catatan peribadi dan sumber lisan mubaligh juga digunakan untuk menganalisis pengaruh perubahan dalam perkembangan sosial yang dilakukan oleh PCS terhadap masyarakat Rungus. Kajian ini mendapati bahawa mubaligh PCS sangat signifikan dalam penyebaran agama Kristian kepada etnik Rungus di Kudat yang sebelumnya dilakukan oleh mubaligh Jerman dan Switzerland. Untuk memudahkan penyebaran agama Kristian, para mubaligh PCS bersama-sama dengan Misi Basel membawa pelbagai perubahan dalam bidang pendidikan dan kesihatan dalam kalangan etnik Rungus di Kudat.</p> <p><br><em>The Basel Church in Sabah is under the auspices of the Basel Mission Center in Switzerland. However, due to the financial problems of the Basel Mission Center, the Basel church in Sabah is self-governing without the involvement of external financial assistance. The name of the Church of Basel Borneo was later changed to the Christian Church of Basel Malaysia (BCCM) in 1963. BCCM played a role in developing the religion of Basel among the local community, especially Rungus which led to the establishment of the Protestant Church in Sabah (PCS). The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of the Protestant Church in Sabah (PCS) as a religious institution in the social development of the Rungus community in Kudat from 1953 to 1993. This study was made based on key sources such as documents, annual reports and newspapers obtained from the Sabah State Archives. The personal notes and oral sources of missionaries are also used to analyze the influence of changes in social development made by PCS on the Rungus community. This study found that PCS missionaries were very significant in the spread of Christianity to the Rungus ethnic group in Kudat which was previously carried out by German and Swiss missionaries. To facilitate the spread of Christianity, the PCS missionaries together with the Basel Mission brought various changes in the field of education and health among the Rungus ethnic group in Kudat.</em></p> CLINSON MOJIJANG, MAUREEN DE SILVA Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2850 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800 SEJARAH PERJUDIAN DI BORNEO UTARA (1881-1941) https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2851 <p>Borneo Utara berada di bawah pentadbiran Syarikat (Berpiagam) Borneo Utara British (SBBUB) dari awal 1881 hingga 1941. Pentadbiran SBBUB melaksanakan pelbagai dasar untuk memastikan pemerintahan politik Borneo Utara lancar dan teratur. Antara langkah yang diambil oleh SBBUB adalah dengan membawa masuk buruh Cina dan Jawa. Namun, buruh asing menyebabkan berlakunya kegiatan perjudian sebagai aktiviti sosial baru di Borneo Utara. Objektif makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis aktiviti perjudian di Borneo Utara semasa pentadbiran SBBUB. Sumber primer digunakan dalam perbincangan terutamanya sumber dokumen pentadbiran kolonial dan juga laporan tahunan kerajaan. Sumber sekunder seperti buku dan jurnal juga dirujuk untuk mengukuhkan analisis perbincangan. Dapatan kajian makalah ini ialah imigran Cina berperanan sebagai pengusaha pusat perjudian di kebanyakan ladang pertanian di Borneo Utara. Manakala imigran Jawa pula sebagai pelanggan kepada pusat-perjudian berkenaan. Aktiviti perjudian semakin berkembang apabila pihak SBBUB mengeluarkan lesen perjudian dan mewujudkan ruangan pusat perjudian yang berdaftar.<br><br></p> <p>North Borneo was under the British North Borneo (Chartered) Company (BNBCC) administration from early 1881 to 1941. The BNBCC administration implemented various policies to ensure the smooth and orderly political governance of North Borneo. Among the steps taken by BNBCC is to bring in Chinese and Javanese manpower. But foreign workers are causing gambling activities as a new social activity in North Borneo. The objective of this paper is to analyze gambling activities in North Borneo during the BNBCC administration. Primary sources are used in discussions especially sources of colonial administrative documents as well as annual government reports. Secondary sources such as books and journals are also referred to to strengthen discussion analysis. The findings of this paper are that Chinese immigrants serve as operators of gambling centers in most agricultural estets in North Borneo. Meanwhile, Javanese immigrants are customers of the gambling centers. Gambling activities are growing when BNBC issues gambling licenses and creates a registered gambling center space.</p> ANDREY JAMES Copyright (c) 2020 Universiti Malaysia Sabah https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/JBA/article/view/2851 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800