Borneo Epidemiology Journal <div class="description"> <p align="justify"><a style="color: #009de5;" href=""><img src="" alt="Front cover" width="51" height="72" /></a>There is an increasing demand for an exclusive journal to publish epidemiological studies. This journal is a fully open journal for the rapidly growing epidemiological studies. Authors will be given a new platform to showcase their work while maintaining standards and quality by being managed by respectable editors and reviewers who are matter experts in their field. This journal focuses on public health epidemiology. </p> <p align="justify">BEJ will be devoted to the contribution covering applied, methodological and theoretical issues. The journal aims to improve epidemiological knowledge and ultimately health worldwide. Contributors include other disciplines that integrate epidemiology in their research including biostatistics, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, tropical diseases, environmental epidemiology, occupational health, rural health, health promotion, clinical epidemiology, public health policy and management. </p> </div> Penerbit UMS en-US Borneo Epidemiology Journal 2735-0266 COVID-19: Need of the hour to revisit asymptomatic prevalence of coronavirus pandemic <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2">Since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic unfolded in China (Huang et al., 2020) back in December 2019, thus far, more than five million people were infected with the virus and 333,401 death were recorded worldwide (WHO, 2020b). The exponential increase in number shows that COVID-19 spreads faster compared to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). A study (Zou et al., 2020) has shown that high viral loads of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are detected in symptomatic patients soon after the onset of symptoms, wherein the load content is higher in their nose than in their throat. Furthermore, the same study has revealed similar viral loads between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Therefore, these findings may suggest the possibility of COVID-19 transmission earlier before the onset of symptoms itself. In the early stages of the pandemic, the control measures carried out have focused on screening of symptomatic person; at the time, the whole world thought that the spread of SARS-Cov-2 would only occur through symptomatic person-to-person transmission. In comparison, transmission in SARS would happen after the onset of illness, whereby the viral loads in the respiratory tract peaked around ten days after the development of symptoms by patients (Peiris et al., 2003). However, case detection for SARS (i.e. screening of symptomatic persons) will be grossly inadequate for the current COVID-19 pandemic, thus requiring different strategies to detect those infected with SARS-CoV-2 before they develop the symptoms.</p> Richard Avoi Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim Mohammad Saffree Jeffree Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 1 4 Complications of Melioidosis: A Systematic Review <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Introduction: </strong>Melioidosis, also known as Whitmore disease, is caused by the gram-negative bacillus, <em>Burkholderia pseudomallei </em>and remains a public health concern in Southeast Asia and northern parts of Australia. This study attempts to identify all possible complications of melioidosis and its outcomes.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Methods: </strong>Literature search was conducted from databases such as PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus from 1<span class="s2">st </span>January 2000 to 31<span class="s2">st </span>August 2019. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) search strategy was used with the terms ‘Melioidosis’ or ‘<em>Burkholderia pseudomallei</em>’ and ‘Complications’.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 162 titles were identified and 22 articles were included in the review. Findings showed that among the 22 articles, the ratio of male to female melioidosis incidence was 2.3 to 1, with most cases (86.4%) aged older than 14 years old and showed a mean age of 46 years old. A third (7/22) of the papers reported the involvement of the nervous system as a complication of melioidosis followed by cardiovascular complications. Among the 23 cases reported, 13 had underlying medical conditions with most of them (84.6%) having diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Overall, only one case (4.3%) had resulted in mortality, while 17.4% developed complications and 78.3% managed a full recovery after undergoing treatment for melioidosis.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The most commonly found complication of melioidosis involved the nervous system but patient outcomes were favourable. Rare complications included mycotic aneurysm that can be fatal. Melioidosis can affect almost any organ leading to various complications.</p> Marilyn Charlene Montini Maluda Michelle May Goroh Eric Chee How Tan Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim Richard Avoi Mohammad Saffree Jeffree Zahir Izuan Azhar Azizan Omar Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 5 15 A Scoping Review of the Effectiveness of Control Interventions of Human and Canine Rabies in an Effort to Rationalise the One Health Approach <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2">According to the World Health Organization (WHO), rabies is one of the 18 neglected tropical diseases, together with dengue, leprosy, and trachoma, among others. Despite being a vaccine-preventable disease, the latest estimate of annual human rabies mortality from a 2015 study is as high as 59,000 throughout 150 countries. In human rabies, more than 95% of the cases are due to dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority by fighting the disease at its animal source. World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) have warranted the One Health framework with the objective of complete eradication of dog-related human rabies by the year 2030. In an effort to rationalise the One Health approach, this scoping review found 17 studies on assessing the effectiveness of control interventions of human and canine rabies. Different strategies were implemented based on the endemicity of rabies in a particular country. Overall, the combined strategies using the One Health approach, which allows effective participation and communication between different agencies, have shown promising results in reducing rabies cases. These strategies will hopefully realise the goal in the Global Strategic Plan to achieve zero canine-mediated human rabies death by the year 2030.</p> Nur Asheila Abdul Taib Razitasham Safii Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 16 34 Ten-year Cardiovascular Disease Risk Amongst Workers in a Tertiary Healthcare Institution in Kuala Lumpur <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2">Strategising, which is an effective workplace intervention to curb cardiovascular disease (CVD), requires understanding of the CVD risk related to a specific working population. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is widely used in predicting the ten-year CVD risk of various working populations. This study aimed to use FRS to determine the ten-year CVD risk amongst workers in a tertiary healthcare setting and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on workers who participated in the special health check programme at the staff clinic of a tertiary healthcare institution in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A set of data sheets was used to retrieve the workers’ sociodemographic and CVD risk information. The prevalence of high, moderate and low ten-year CVD risk was 12.8%, 20.0% and 67.2%, respectively. Workers in the high-risk group were older [mean age: 54.81 (standard deviation, 5.72) years], male (44%), smokers (72.7%) and having hyperglycaemia (46.7%) and hypertriglyceridemia [median triglycerides: 1.75 (interquartile range, 1.45) mmol/L]. Diastolic blood pressure (aOR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01,1.14), hyperglycaemia (aOR 8.80, 95% CI: 1.92,40.36) and hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 4.45, 95% CI: 1.78,11.09) were significantly associated with high ten-year CVD risk. Diastolic blood pressure (aOR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03,1.13) and hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 2.51, 95% CI: 1.12-5.61) were significantly associated with moderate ten-year CVD risk. The prevalence of high and moderate ten-year CVD risk was relatively high. Amongst the workers in the high-risk group, they were older, male, smokers and with high fasting blood sugar and triglyceride. Understanding the ten-year CVD risk and its associated factors could be used to plan periodic workplace health assessment and monitor to prevent CVD.</p> Norfazilah Ahmad Santhna Letchmi Panduragan Chong Hong Soon Kalaiarasan Gemini Yee San Khor Nur Atikah Bahrin Nur Husnina Azhar Muhammad Zaid Ibrahim Norlin Syuhada Othman Khamsiah Nawawi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 35 45 Geographic accessibility of healthcare services and health seeking behaviours of rural communities in Kudat and Pitas areas of Sabah <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Introduction: </strong>One of the aims outlined in Malaysia’s Health Vision 2020 is to be a nation of healthy individuals, families, and communities through an equitable, affordable, efficient, environmentally adaptable, and consumer friendly healthcare system. Sabah faces tremendous challenges to provide the best care for patients. For example, Sabah's unique geographical location and landscape, such as steep hills and rivers, is one of the challenges that health staff faces. Objectives of this study aimed to examine the prevalence of geographical accessibility, types of healthcare services, and the types of health seeking behaviour in 2 northern rural areas of Sabah to assess the geographic accessibility and availability of healthcare services. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural areas in Sabah—Kudat and Pitas. Data collection was done by using questionnaire and face–to-face interviews. <strong>Results</strong>: It was found that 48% of the study population sought healthcare and they mainly chose healthcare services from hospitals and health clinics. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Half of the population in the areas studied used healthcare in the last year. The choice of using a public hospital or community health clinics was determined by distance from residence.</p> Oo Tha Naing Wendy Diana Shoesmith Chrystalle B. Y. Tan Mohd Yusof Ibrahim Syed Shajee Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 46 54 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Prevention Among Mothers in Endemic and Non-Endemic Locations of Pekanbaru City, Riau Province, Indonesia <p class="p2">Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus, which is one of the serious public health problems in Indonesia, particularly Pekanbaru City, Riau Province, Indonesia. One of the DHF endemic locations in Pekanbaru City is Payung Sekaki Health Centre, where 52 DHF cases and no deaths were reported in 2018. The number of DHF cases has increased to 53 and caused 1 death in January-August 2019 period (CFR = 1.89%). Karya Wanita Rumbai Health Centre is one of the DHF non-endemic areas in Pekanbaru City, where only 10 DHF cases and no deaths were reported in January-August 2019 period. The purpose of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice of DHF prevention between mothers in endemic and non-endemic areas of Pekanbaru City, Riau Province, Indonesia. The design of this study was observational, with a cross-sectional approach. The sampling technique used in this study was accidental sampling, which included 100 respondents from each region. The data source of this study consisted of primary and secondary data. Data analysis was performed using bivariate analysis with Mann Whitney statistical test because the data were not normally distributed. The results of the study showed that there were no differences in knowledge (<em>p</em>-value = 0.912) and attitude (<em>p</em>-value = 0.065) of DHF prevention between mothers living in the endemic and non-endemic areas of Pekanbaru City, Riau Province, Indonesia. However, there were differences in practice of DHF prevention between mothers (<em>p</em>-value = 0.002) living in the endemic and non-endemic areas of Pekanbaru City, Riau Province, Indonesia. The conclusion of this study is that there is no difference in knowledge and attitude of DHF prevention between mothers living in the endemic and non-endemic areas, but there are differences in DHF prevention practice between mothers living in the endemic and non-endemic areas of Pekanbaru City, Riau Province, Indonesia.</p> Tyagita Widya Sari Martha Saptariza Yuliea Novita Meqimiana Siregar Raudhatul Muttaqin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 55 66 Validity and Reliability of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Scale for Dog Bite Prevention in Children <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Introduction: </strong>Rabies is a highly fatal disease that is mostly caused by a dog bite. The Dog Bite Prevention KAP scale is a 30-item scale that is designed to measure children’s level of safety knowledge on dog’s behaviour, precautionary behaviour around dogs, perceived vulnerability towards dogs and help-seeking behaviour following a dog bite. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the test-retest reliability and validity of outcome measures. <strong>Methods: </strong>This questionnaire was administered to samples of school student aged from 13 years to 14 years at a secondary school located in Bau District, Sarawak. They were purposively selected for a baseline interview (Time 1) and a ten-day follow-up (Time 2). This study was conducted within four months, which were from 10 April to 31 August 2018. Descriptive analysis, content analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, intra-class correlation and exploratory factor analysis were performed in this study. <strong>Results: </strong>A total of 64 boys and 114 girls were involved in the study, whereby 79.2%, 10.1%, 7.9%, 2.2% and 0.6% of them were of Bidayuh ethnic, Chinese, Iban, Malays and other ethnic, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.796. The test-retest intra-class correlation was adequate, with 0.84 for perceived vulnerability towards dogs and 0.81 for precautionary behaviour around dogs. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation resulted in two factors, which explained 39% of the variance (perceived vulnerability towards dogs) and 49% of the variance (precautionary behaviour around dogs). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for a dog-bite prevention survey.</p> Syahrizal Abdul Halim Rosalia Saimon Parveen Kaur Sarjeet Singh Razitasham Safii Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 67 78 Unique Challenges for Mental Health in Inpatient Settings Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspective from Sabah <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2">COVID-19 has impacted the world in many ways due to fears of contracting the pandemic, social distancing, and large-scale movement control rules. These have especially grave consequences for inpatient psychiatry. This article reviews measures taken to adapt to the new norm in inpatient care, both for standalone psychiatry units and consultation-liaison units. For inpatient units, changes have been made for personal protective equipment usage, screening and triaging policies, and training and educational policies. Consultation liaison units together with inpatient units have been required to expand the scope of coverage and difficulties by providing certain teleconsultation services. As the new norm takes precedence, Sabah has to embrace and empower community-based psychiatry services for better outreach and coverage. This article discusses the issues underlying the new norm in the management of inpatient psychiatry patients in both units and presents some points and practical solutions on the ground to instil hope.</p> Chet Lee Sze Keat Ng Chun Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim Nicholas Tze Ping Pang Copyright (c) 2020 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 1 79 87