Borneo Epidemiology Journal <div class="description"> <p align="justify"><a style="color: #009de5;" href=""><img src="" alt="Front cover" width="51" height="72" /></a>There is an increasing demand for an exclusive journal to publish epidemiological studies. This journal is a fully open journal for the rapidly growing epidemiological studies. Authors will be given a new platform to showcase their work while maintaining standards and quality by being managed by respectable editors and reviewers who are matter experts in their field. This journal focuses on public health epidemiology. </p> <p align="justify">BEJ will be devoted to the contribution covering applied, methodological and theoretical issues. The journal aims to improve epidemiological knowledge and ultimately health worldwide. Contributors include other disciplines that integrate epidemiology in their research including biostatistics, communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases, tropical diseases, environmental epidemiology, occupational health, rural health, health promotion, clinical epidemiology, public health policy and management. </p> </div> Penerbit UMS en-US Borneo Epidemiology Journal 2735-0266 Mitigation Measures during Elections and It’s Impacts on COVID-19 Pandemic: Sabah State (Malaysia), New Zealand and the United States <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong> Countries all over the world respect the election process as<br>one of the fundamental steps in forming a government. However, the exponential spread of<br>COVID-19 has been deeply alarming, with a high number of positive cases and total deaths,<br>forcing World Health Organization to declare it as a pandemic on 11th March 2020. During<br>these unprecedented events, governments have had a tough decision to balance between the<br>constitutional obligation to hold an election and the safety of the people. As such, electoral<br>commissions have implemented numerous approaches to allow election to proceed in a safe<br>and controlled setting during the pandemic.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> The preventative measures and standard operating procedures in the Sabah state<br>of Malaysia, New Zealand and the United States elections are discussed, as well as COVID19 post-election situation in respective countries. Innovative approaches and election<br>flexibilities shall be considered to allow voting in the safest way possible, following the new<br>normal.<br><strong>Discussion:</strong> Nevertheless, countries need to evaluate its strength of public health response<br>when deciding to hold elections due to potential devastating outbreaks following elections<br>despite measures taken.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The election is a fundamental process in a democracy. Countries are required<br>to be flexible and innovative in their approach to hold a safe election. Nevertheless, it may<br>be prudent for countries with fewer resources and poor pandemic control to postpone<br>election as a rise in cases will be catastrophic, putting many lives at risk.</p> Syaza Zainudin Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim Nor Nadia Mohamad Ridza Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 145 156 Public Health Response to Restore Polio Free Status in Malaysia <p class="p1">Malaysia started the polio immunization programme since 1972 and achieved polio-free</p> <p class="p1">certification in 2000. After 27 years from the last reported polio case in 1992, on 8 December</p> <p class="p1">2019, the Ministry of Health Malaysia announced the return of polio into the country when</p> <p class="p1">the first polio case detected in Sabah involving a 3-month-old male child <span class="s1">(</span><span class="s2">Abdullah, N.H.,</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s2">2019</span><span class="s1">)</span>. The child confirmed to be infected with vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (VDPV1)</p> <p class="p1">which later classified as a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1). Further</p> <p class="p1">test confirmed that the virus is genetically linked to poliovirus (PHL-NCR-2) circulating in</p> <p class="p1">the southern Philippines <span class="s1">(Alleman, M.M. et al., 2020)</span>. To date, a total of four polio cases</p> <p class="p1">were confirmed in Sabah of which due to vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (VDPV1). The</p> <p class="p1">vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (VDPV2) was also detected from environmental samples</p> <p class="p1">taken from various locations in Sabah.</p> Richard Avoi SYED SHARIZMAN SYED ABDUL RAHIM Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 93 95 Teaching Epidemiology and Biostatistics: A Peer-Led Teaching Module for Postgraduate Psychiatry Student <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong><br>Biostatistics and epidemiology have been integral subjects in any postgraduate courses,<br>including medical specialties Master programs. Both are widely accepted as among the<br>difficult and confusing subjects, which worsen by lack of adequate exposure and often, time<br>constraints. Hence, peer-led learning approach was proposed as a viable option to the<br>traditional lecturer-driven learning style.<br><strong>Method:</strong><br>The peer-led approach intends to promote targeted learning and conceptual understanding,<br>instead of widely sweeping learning, which is rather directionless and could cause information<br>overload.<br><strong>Discussion:</strong><br>Students were divided into two groups, namely humanities-inclined group and scienceinclined group. Different pedagogical methods to address the different groups were discussed.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong><br>This approach helps to make the learning more palatable, boosting knowledge retention and<br>fostering camaraderie spirit among colleagues.</p> Nicholas Tze Ping Pang Eugene Koh Sandi James Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 COVID-19 Pandemic - A Review and Assessing Higher Education Institution Undergraduate Student’s Mental Health <p class="p1"><strong>Introduction:</strong> The current COVID-19 pandemic has sequelae reverberating around</p> <p class="p1">Malaysia, particularly in university students, as Malaysian university students are isolated</p> <p class="p1">in their university campuses in semi-quarantine status. This article seeks to review the</p> <p class="p1">existing literature on the specialized issue of university student-related psychological</p> <p class="p1">sequelae of COVID-19, and seeks to offer some recommendations through the process.</p> <p class="p1"><strong>Methods:</strong> Existing literature demonstrates that COVID-19 has affected university students</p> <p class="p1">psychosocially, with the rate of anxiety and depression markedly increased. There have</p> <p class="p1">been significant alterations of lifestyle related to education, in accordance with the new</p> <p class="p1">normal, resulting in isolation and feelings of disengagement with education. Moreover,</p> <p class="p1">with the current uncertainties regarding their studies and possible financial depression postpandemic,</p> <p class="p1">the future is deeply worrying and will adversely affect their mental health.</p> <p class="p1"><strong>Results:</strong> Quantitatively, recent findings indicate 33.3% of the undergraduates in a higher</p> <p class="p1">education institution are noted to be in stress. Therefore, multiple interventions have been</p> <p class="p1">implemented; a customized ultra-brief psychological module, an online tele psychiatry</p> <p class="p1">hotline (COVID Cares) and tele-counselling, which have received universally positive</p> <p class="p1">feedback.</p> <p class="p1"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, the review demonstrates that undergraduates’ psychological</p> <p class="p1">health is an aspect that needs urgent attention as it is not merely limited to the fear of</p> <p class="p1">COVID-19, but also related to the social aspects of the pandemic. Multiple interventions</p> <p class="p1">have been seen to be efficacious in reducing the psychological sequelae.</p> Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim Nicholas Tze Ping Pang Sandi James Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 96 103 Host and Environmental Factors that Influence Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Infection in Humans: A Systematic Review <p class="p2"><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Plasmodium knowlesi </em>(<em>P.knowlesi</em>) is a zoonotic malaria parasite, transmitted between non-human primate hosts by the Anopheles (An.) mosquitos, and causing spill-over infections in humans where the parasite, vector, host, and human converge.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Methods: </strong>The search was done electronically to explore for appropriate papers <em>via </em>PubMed, and Science Direct for articles published up to March 2020, containing the words “factors associated” or “environmental factors” or “individual factors” or “ecological factors” and “<em>P.knowlesi</em>” and “human” including synonyms and Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms. A total of 27 articles from PubMed Databases and 18 articles from Science Direct were selected to be assessed for eligibility. Out of it, a total of 13 articles were selected to be analysed.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Results: </strong>Host factors such as sex and age, as well as occupation as individual factors, while environmental factors such as rainfall and geographic elevation have some association with <em>P.knowlesi </em>infection in humans. This zoonotic malaria poses unique challenges that will need to be addressed if all forms of malaria are to be eliminated based on the sustainable development goal (SDG).</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This article highlights the importance of disease ecologies such as climate and landscape and human-environment interactions such as the land use patterns, such as agriculture or infrastructure activities) to reduce the further increase of cases and mortality globally due to <em>P.knowlesi </em>infection. This review focuses mainly on the host and environmental factors that influence <em>P.knowlesi </em>Malaria Infection in Humans.</p> Michal Christina Steven Glen Wendel Sibadogil Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim Richard Avoi Fredie Robinson Awang Setia Musleh Mohammad Saffree Jeffree Mohd Rohaizat Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 104 115 Polymorphisms of CYP1A1 Genes and Its Correlation with Clinical Variant of Pterygium <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Background and Objective: </strong>CYP1A1 gene, which has role in carcinogenic metabolisms, is also detected in pterygium tissue. The aim of the study is to determine the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 m2 (rs1048943) and m4 (rs1799814) gene and its correlation with clinical variant of the pterygium.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Methods: </strong>DNA isolation was performed from blood sample of 80 pterygium patients consisting of 40 inflammatory and 40 non-inflammatory pterygium. Genotyping of rs1048943 SNP A<span class="s2"></span>G (m2) in the CYP1A1 gene was performed using <em>Alel Specific Polymerase Chain reaction (AS-PCR) </em>and rs1048943) SNP Genotyping was performed using PCR. Polymorphism results are characterized as wild type (AA), mutant homozygote (GG), and mutant heterozygote (AG).</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Results: </strong>CYP1A1 m2 and m4 gene polymorphism consist of wild type (AA), mutant homozygote (GG), and mutant heterozygote (AG). Both CYP1A1 m2 and m4 genes polymorphism of both groups of inflammatory and non-inflammatory pterygium was mostly consist of wild type polymorphism, followed by the mutant heterozygote polymorphism. The wild type polymorphism was found to be higher in inflammatory pterygium, meanwhile the mutant heterozygote was found to be higher in non-inflammatory pterygium.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There were differences in CYP1A1 m2 and m4 gene polymorphism in both pterygium group, but none has been shown to be statistically associated with the clinical variant of the pterygium.</p> Hendriati Vitresia H Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 116 123 Correlation between Serum Magnesium Levels and HbA1C in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p>Background and Objective: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease resulting from a<br>complex inheritance, environmental interaction along with risk factors such as obesity and<br>sedentary life style. Magnesium has been stated to have potential role in improving insulin<br>sensitivity and preventing diabetes related complications. Hypomagnesaemia is proposed as one<br>of the factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The aim of our study is to estimate<br>the correlation between serum Magnesium levels and the level of Glycemic control (HbA1c) in<br>patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.<br>Methods: This is an observational study conducted in SVRRGGH and SVMC, Tirupati, Andhra<br>Pradesh which included 94 patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus of more than 5 years duration.<br>These patients were divided into 2 groups based on level of Diabetic control. Group A included<br>30 patients with HbA1c below 7.0mg/dL (good glycemic control) and Group B included 64<br>patients with HbA1c above 7.0mg/dL (poor glycemic control). In both the groups Serum<br>Magnesium levels were estimated.<br>Results: Mean Serum Magnesium levels in Group A was 2.280±0.3955mg/dL while in Group B<br>it was 2.087±0.5834 mg/dL with a p-value 0.0379 (&lt;0.05) which is statistically significant. In<br>our study though the mean values of serum Magnesium are within normal reference range, mean<br>values of serum Magnesium levels in patients with poor glycemic control(HbA1c&gt;7.0) are<br>statistically low as compared to patients with good glycemic control (HbA1c &lt;7.0).<br>Discussion: It has been reported that Serum Magnesium levels are lower in uncontrolled<br>diabetics when compared to controlled diabetics and also serum magnesium levels vary with<br>treatment for diabetes. In our study, although the mean values of serum magnesium in both<br>groups are within Normal reference range (1.7-2.2mg/dL), they are statistically low in group<br>with poor glycemic control (HbA1c &gt;7.0mg/dL) when to group with good glycemic control<br>(HbA1c&lt; 7.0mg/dL).Thus this gives an insight into the association of hypomagnesaemia and<br>level of diabetic control.<br>Conclusion: This effective comparative study of deals with varying Magnesium levels in<br>specific diabetic therapies and analysed the effect of urinary magnesium detected in<br>Hypermagnesuria with Magnesium supplementation.</p> Madhavi Kondeti Thejaswini Lalitha Sathyam Durgam Anuswaru M Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 136 144 Indonesian Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Validity and Reliability <p class="p1">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Background and Objective: </strong>The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) is a seven-item uni-dimensional scale assessing the severity of COVID-19 concerns. A translation and validation of the FCV-19S in Bahasa Indonesia language was expedited in view of the worrying trends of COVID-19 in Indonesia as well as its psychological squeal.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Methods: </strong>Formal WHO forward and backward translation sequences were applied in translating the English FCV-19S into Bahasa Indonesia. Indonesian university participants were recruited <em>via </em>convenience sampling online using snowball methods. The reliability and validity of the Indonesian FCV-19S was psychometrically evaluated by applying confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis in relation to sociodemographic variables and response to the depression, anxiety, and stress components of the Indonesian version of DASS-21. The sample consisted of 434 Indonesian participants.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Results: </strong>The Cronbach α value for the Indonesia FCV-19-I was 0.819 indicated very good internal reliability. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the uni-dimensional factor structure of the FCV19S fitted well with the data. The FCV-19-I was significantly correlated with anxiety (r= 0.705, p&lt; 0.001) subscales of DASS-21. The FCV-19-I’s properties tested using Rasch analysis were also satisfactory, although three items in FCV-19-I were not able to be tested.</p> <p class="p2"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hence, the Indonesian FCV-19-I is valid and reliable, with robust psychometric properties from classical and modern psychometric methods. It can be a valuable and useful tool in identifying and responding to psychological distress caused by COVID-19.</p> Mohd Amiruddin Mohd Kassim Friska Ayu Assis Kamu Nicholas Tze Ping Pang Chong Mun Ho Hafid Algristian Moch Sahri Nurfarah Lydia Hambali Azizan Omar Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-22 2020-12-22 1 2 124 135