• Rajeena Sugumaran Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Pamela David Jocksing Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Nur Athirah Yusof Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia



bacteria , recreational parks , antimicrobial resistance , Sabah , community health , infection


Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are contributors to infection cases among the Asian population. S. aureus is found in the mucous lining of noses and is mainly non-pathogenic while E. coli, mostly harmless bacteria, are found in the intestine. Pathogenic strains of both bacteria have adverse effects on the elderly and younger age group of the population. Samples were collected from recreational parks around Kota Kinabalu as they are hotspots frequently visited by families with both age groups. The bacterial samples were isolated and cultured on selective media such as Baird-Parker agar (BPA), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar, MacConkey agar and Eosin-Methylene Blue (EMB) agar. Morphological characteristics of bacterial growth were observed, where S. aureus had black-shiny growth in BPA
and E. coli had a metallic-green sheen in EMB agar. The suspected bacteria samples were then stained and viewed under a light microscope. S. aureus was identified as gram-positive, stained violet with a circular shape and clustered  appearance. E. coli was identified as gram-negative, stained red, rod-shaped with 2 – 3 bacterial alignment. Antibiotic resistance test resulted in S. aureus and E. coli samples did not display 100% resistance among 4 antibiotics tested (ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol). Most of the bacteria samples were a minimum inhibitory of 0.1 mg/mL of antibiotic concentration. These results provide a foundation for further research on identifying bacterial strains using molecular methods. The findings can then be used to disseminate information to the public to create awareness of potential disease outbreaks in the city.


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How to Cite

Sugumaran, R., David Jocksing, P., & Yusof, N. A. (2020). IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF Staphylococcus aureus AND Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM RECREATIONAL PARKS AROUND KOTA KINABALU, SABAH. Borneo International Journal of Biotechnology (BIJB), 55 - 75.