Journal of Tropical Biology & Conservation (JTBC) <div> <p style="text-align: justify;">The Journal&nbsp;of Tropical Biology and Conservation is an international reviewed journal published once a year by the Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. This journal is devoted to the publication of research papers, short notes or communications, reports and reviews in all fields that are of general relevance to tropical biology and conservation including...&nbsp;<strong>read more</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><img src="/ojums/public/site/images/gjulia/cover162.jpg"></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> </div> Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah en-US Journal of Tropical Biology & Conservation (JTBC) 1823-3902 Odonata Fauna of Imbak Canyon Conservation Area, Sabah <p>Dragonflies and damselflies, collectively known as Odonata, are an important component of fresh water ecosystems. The Odonata fauna of the Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA) was surveyed during the Batu Timbang Research Station Scientific Expedition on 16-26 August 2017. A total of 62 Odonata species from 13 families were recorded. The family Libellulidae had the highest number of species (27), and this was followed by Coenagrionidae (nine species), Calopterygidae (five species), Platycnemididae (five species) and Platystictidae (four species). The other families (Devadattidae, Chlorocyphidae, Euphaeidae, Lestidae, Philosinidae, Aeshnidae, Corduliidae and Macromiidae) were only represented by 1-3 species. Of the species recorded, 30 are new records for ICCA. The number of species recorded was high, indicating the high diversity of Odonata fauna of ICCA. These records were combined with the existing records in literature to produce a checklist. At present, 68 species from 15 families are known from ICCA.</p> Choong Chee Yen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 1 8 A Preliminary Assessment of Insect Diversity in Imbak Canyon – Batu Timbang <p>This insect diversity survey by the Sabah Forestry Department team was carried out from 16<sup>th</sup> to 20<sup>th</sup> of August, 2017 in Imbak Canyon – Batu Timbang area. Nocturnal insect diversity was assessed through light-trapping while diurnal insects were documented through fruit-baited traps, sweep nets and forceps. The mean nocturnal insect species richness was 48 species while the mean abundance was 55 individuals. These values were affected by the presence of many wild honeybees, <em>Apis dorsata</em> and the unexpectedly wet weather. Some Bornean endemic species were recorded, which included moths, beetles, dragonflies and a butterfly species. The Bornean endemic butterfly, <em>Papilio acheron</em>, is a rare species documented during the survey. Interesting and iconic species recorded are the Malaysia national butterfly, <em>Trogonoptera brookiana</em> and the world’s largest bush cricket, <em>Macrolyristes imperator</em>. These insect data provide salient information to enhance the conservation of the Batu Timbang forest. They will serve as baseline information for other insect research work in future. Threats, such as forest fire, fragmentation, illegal clearing of vegetation and poaching are likely to indirectly affect the insect fauna. As such, continuous monitoring and enforcement at strategic locations are important to minimize these threats.</p> Arthur Y. C. Chung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 9 24 Amphibians and Reptiles of Imbak Canyon Study Centre and Batu Timbang Camp <p>Amphibians and reptiles of Imbak Canyon Study Centre and Batu Timbang Camp&nbsp; have never been studied and &nbsp;this expedition was organised to produce an inventory of the species. The herpetofaunal animals were searched actively using the visual encounter survey method. A total of 84 specimens of amphibians and reptiles were obtained, comprising 75 amphibians and nine reptiles. The total number of species obtained during the expedition was 33 (26 amphibian species and 7 reptilian species). Twenty species were obtained from Batu Timbang Camp (BTC) and 21 species were recorded from Imbak Canyon Study Centre (ICSC). The updated compiled list of species of herpetofauna at ICCA is now 73 species (37 amphibian species and 36 reptilian species).</p> Norhayati Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 25 33 Land and Freshwater Snails of Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA), Sabah, Northern Borneo <p>This paper presents the first checklist of land and freshwater snails of Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA) as part of the Imbak Crayon Scientific Expedition 2017. The specimens of land and freshwater snails were collected from six standard sampling plots and several random locations around Batu Timbang Basecamp between 17<sup>th</sup> and 19<sup>th</sup> August 2017. A total of 21 species of land snail and one species of freshwater snail are presented in a checklist. Currently, 24 species of land snails and one species of freshwater snail are recorded in ICCA, after including two species that were previously recorded but yet to be published.</p> Liew Thor Seng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 35–39 35–39 Birds of Imbak Canyon Study Centre, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area, Tongod, Sabah, Malaysia <p>A survey on birds of the Imbak Canyon Study Centre was conducted from 16<sup>th </sup>to 26<sup>th</sup> August 2017, in every direction along the roads, forest trails through the understorey, i.e. whenever fine weather permitted. A total of 92 species of birds from 33 families were recorded. A total of 27 species are Near Threatened, one species is Vulnerable (Blue-headed Pitta), one species is not recorded (White-crowned Shama) and one species are Critically Endangered (Helmeted Hornbill). The present survey contributed nine new records to the area, updating the compiled list to 252 species, from the previous 243 species. The nine new records are Lesser Cuckoo Shrike, Red-bearded Bee-eater, Dark-sided Flycatcher, Yellow-vented Flowerpecker, Van Hasselt’s Sunbird, Temminck’s Sunbird, Yellow-bellied Prinia, Bold-striped Tit Babbler, and White-necked Babbler. All new records of the area are in the Least Concern category except the White-necked Babbler, which is Near Threatened.</p> Norhayati Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 41–60 41–60 Screening for Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria from Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA) <p>Antibiotic resistance is an escalating threat to public health. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. This study aims to screen for antibiotic-producing microorganisms from the forest soil of Batu Timbang. Soil samples were collected, diluted and spread plated onto 1/5 Nutrient Agar (NA) and Actinomycete Isolation Agar (AIA) for the isolation of antibiotic-producing microorganisms. A total of 180 bacterial isolates were screened for their antibiotic-producing ability, and ten were tested positive for inhibitory activity against one or more test pathogens via agar overlay assay (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC BAA-1717, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> ATCC 700802, and <em>Acinetobacter</em> <em>baumannii</em> ATCC BAA-1605). Ten bacterial isolates were subjected to 16S rRNA gene amplification and gene sequence analysis. The isolates were identified to be closely related to the genus <em>Variovorax</em>, <em>Streptomyces</em>, <em>Kitasatospora</em>, <em>Chromobacterium</em>, <em>Burkholderia</em>, <em>Pseudomonas</em> and <em>Massilia</em>. Three isolates (<em>Variovorax </em>sp. A5, <em>Variovorax </em>sp. A6 and <em>Kitasatospora </em>sp. H8) are potentially novel as these isolates form a different clade from their respective closely related species via phylogenetic tree analysis using reference sequences obtained from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases. The antibiotics produced by the bacterial isolates might potentially be new, as novel species might possess unique biosynthetic gene clusters to produce new compounds. Nevertheless, further taxonomic identification and antibiotic isolation work is required. This study has revealed the potential of antibiotic discovery from Batu Timbang (Imbak Canyon Conservation Area) and its implications in tackling antibiotic resistance.</p> Kuan Shion Ong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 61–72 61–72 Fruit flies of Batu Timbang Forest Within Imbak Canyon Conservation Area, Sabah, Malaysia (Diptera: Tephritidae) <p>A survey of fruit fly fauna was carried out at Batu Timbang Research Station, (Imbak Canyon Conservation Area – ICCA), Telupid, Sabah from 17<sup>th</sup> to 20<sup>th</sup> of August 2017. Fruit flies were collected using aerial net and bottle traps containing an attractant (Methyl Eugenol (ME) and Cue-lure (CUE)) at Lanap Trail, Rafflesia Trail and base camp. A total of 77 fruit flies belonging to <em>Bactrocera</em> were collected. This includes six species and three morphospecies, of which <em>Bactrocera tau</em> was the dominant species (56 individuals). This is the first study on fruit fly species at Imbak Canyon Conservation Area.</p> Homathevi Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 73–77 73–77 Taxanomic Composition and Conservation Status of Plants in Imbak Canyon, Sabah, Malaysia <p>A study of plant diversity and their conservation status was conducted in Batu Timbang, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA), Sabah. The study aimed to document plant diversity and to identify interesting, endemic, rare and threatened plant species which were considered high conservation value species. A total of 413 species from 82 families were recorded from the study area of which 93 taxa were endemic to Borneo, including 10 endemic to Sabah. These high conservation value species are key conservation targets for any forested area such as ICCA. Proper knowledge of plant diversity and their conservation status is vital for the formulation of a forest management plan for the Batu Timbang area.</p> Elizabeth Pesiu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 79–100 79–100 Short Notes on Saproxylic Arthropods of Batu Timbang Research Station, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area <p>A sampling of saproxylic arthropods was conducted from a fallen log located close to an existing trail and was situated under shaded area. All arthropods (larvae, pupae and adults) found in the fallen log were collected and kept in vials containing 75 % ethanol solution for identification. A total of 7 insect orders and 1 class of arthropod (Diplopoda) were collected. 15 species of ants were collected but only 1 species observed residing in the fallen log. Other ants were collected foraging on the deadwood. Only one species of termites (Blattodea: <u>Havilanditermes</u> <u>atripennis</u>) was recorded. Other orders found include Coleoptera (beetles), Orthoptera (mole cricket), Dermaptera (earwig), Diptera (fly) and Lepidoptera (moth).</p> Mahadimenakbar M. Dawood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 101–106 101–106 Macrofungi of Imbak Canyon – Batu Timbang Area, Sabah <p>Macrofungi survey was carried out from 21<sup>st</sup> to 26<sup>th </sup>of August, 2017 during the Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA) Scientific Expedition at Batu Timbang Area, Imbak Canyon, Sabah. The purpose of the study was to survey the diversity of mushroom forming-fungi or macrofungi because such study and information is poorly documented and limited in Malaysia. In this scientific expedition, we obtained a total of 106 species from 13 different families within Basidiomycota and Ascomycota<strong>. </strong>The most dominant family found was Polyporaceae with 25 species were collected, 23% of the total samples collected. We identified four different species of edible mushrooms and two deadly poisonous mushrooms. About 47% unidentified group will be subjected for DNA analysis. Apart from that, we characterized some of the polypore till genus or species level. The most interesting species from this study area were <em>Earliella scabrosa</em> and <em>Panus similis </em>that were recorded to have a medicinal properties. A glowing mushroom, <em>Mycena illuminans</em> is a new record for the Imbak Canyon region. Diversity of the ectomycorrhizal mushrooms which are specific to dipterocarp trees in Batu Timbang should be explored. Endemic and IUCN red listed species like <em>Buglossoporus </em>sp. found in the study area should be preserved for DNA. Future studies are needed in order to conserve the hidden knowledge of undescribed groups of mushroom from this region.&nbsp;</p> Jaya Seelan Sathiya Seelan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 107–117 107–117 A preliminary survey of Araceae of Batu Timbang, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA), Sabah, Malaysia Borneo. <p>During a scientific expedition to Batu Timbang, Imbak Canyon Conservation Area (ICCA), Sandakan, Sabah between 17 and 20 August 2017, 14 species in seven genera of Araceae were collected. The genera are <em>Pothos</em> (<em>Pothos</em> [Allopothos] sp.); <em>Rhaphidophora</em> (<em>R. korthalsii</em>, <em>R. sylvestris</em>, <em>R. latevaginata</em>); <em>Scindapusus</em> (<em>S. pictus</em>, <em>S. longistipitatus</em>, <em>S. kinabaluensis</em>, and <em>Scindapsus</em> sp. nov.); <em>Schismatoglottis</em> (<em>S. wongii</em>); <em>Aglaonema</em> sp.; <em>Ooia</em> sp. and <em>Alocasia </em>(<em>A. robusta</em>, <em>A. sarawakensis, </em>and <em>A. wongii</em>).</p> Kartini Saibeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 119–123 119–123 Species Composition and Distribution of Zingiberaceae in Mt. Hamiguitan Expansion Site, Davao Oriental, Philippines <p>This study was conducted to assess the composition and distribution of gingers (Zingiberaceae) in Mt. Hamiguitan expansion site, Tumalite, San Isidro, Davao Oriental, Philippines. Transect walk and opportunistic sampling were carried out along established forest trails, rivers, creeks and streams. Fourteen (14) ginger species were found, of which 10 species are endemic to the Philippines, two species are introduced, and two species are unidentified to the species level. The species belong to two subfamilies (Alpinioideae and Zingiberoideae) and three tribes (Alpinieae, Globbeae, and Zingibereae). The species recorded include <em>Alpinia haenkei</em> C.Presl, <em>Alpinia</em> cf. <em>vulcanica</em> Elmer, <em>Alpinia rufa</em> C.Presl, <em>Alpinia</em> sp., <em>Curcuma zedoaria</em> (Christm.) Rosc., <em>Curcuma longa</em> L<em>.</em>, <em>Etlingera dalican</em> (Elmer) A.D.Poulsen,<em> Etlingera</em> <em>hamiguitanensis </em>Naive, <em>Etlingera</em> sp., <em>Geocharis fusiformis</em> (Ridl.) R.M.Sm., <em>Globba </em><em>campsophylla</em> K.Schum., <em>Hornstedtia conoidea</em> Ridl., <em>Hornstedtia</em> <em>microcheila</em> Ridl., and <em>Meistera muricarpa </em>(Elmer) Škorničk. &amp; M.F.Newman. These species represent 47% of the total genera and 14% of the total species of Zingiberaceae in the Philippines. Cluster analysis (numerical analysis) using morphological descriptions supported present taxonomic placements of the species. The data indicated that <em>G. fusiformis</em> is the most abundant ginger in the area.</p> Florfe M. Acma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 125–140 125–140 Effects of the total solar eclipse of March 9, 2016 on the animal behaviour <p>Studies on animal behaviour associated with natural phenomenon such as a solar eclipse, provides valuable contribution to the ecology of the studied animal. An observation on the effect of the total solar eclipse on the environment and animal behaviour was done in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia on March 8-9, 2016. Four recorded environmental factors changed dramatically during the solar eclipse. Air temperature, light intensity, and wind-speed dropped and reached the peak around the maximum eclipse, whereas humidity increased at the same time. The observed animals, i.e. Heck’s macaque, flying fox, maleo, amphibians, and several insects showed unusual behaviour as a response to the environmental changes. Meanwhile, tarsier showed no response to the solar eclipse. This observation revealed the effect of the total solar eclipse on the environment and animal behaviour.</p> Sigit Wiantoro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 141–153 141–153 A new record of Euphorbia atoto (Euphorbiaceae) in Bangka Belitung and notes of Coptosapelta hammii (Rubiaceae) for Borneo <p><em>Euphorbia atoto </em>(Euphorbiaceae) and <em>Coptosapelta hammii</em> (Rubiaceae) have been recently collected from Belitung Islands, east of Sumatra, west Malesia. The discovery of <em>Euphorbia atoto</em>, combined with specimens kept in BO, is a new record for Bangka and Belitung Island, while <em>C. hammii </em>is considered to be an important rediscovery of a species thought to be endemic. Further examination of previously collected materials of <em>C. hammii</em> shows that this species has also been collected from Borneo, which means this species is no longer endemic to Belitung. Descriptions, photographs, notes on uses and a brief discussion are given.</p> Wendy A. Mustaqim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 155 163 The Daily Activity Budgets of Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) at Padang Teratak Wildlife Sanctuary, Beaufort, Sabah, Malaysia <p>At present, the conversion of natural forests into urbanized and agricultural plantation areas are rising at an accelerated rate. Due to the loss of suitable habitats, wildlife i.e. macaques are forced to move into or nearby areas close to humans. The increased encounters between humans and macaques have led to conflicts between both when macaques utilize human resources. A preliminary study was conducted to explore the daily activity pattern of macaques based on age-sex and time in human-dominated areas (e.g. human settlements, oil palm plantation and fruit orchards). . The study was conducted in Padang Teratak Wildlife Sanctuary (PTWS) located in the district of Beaufort, eastern part of Sabah, Malaysia. Opportunistic observations were conducted along the roads encompassing seven villages in four days per month from December 2015 to January 2016. The survey was conducted in four time frames for 11 hours per day (06:00-09:00, 09:00-12:00, 13:00-15:00 and 15:00-18:00) to document behaviour of macaques with regards to the time of the day. Overall, a total of 1,462 individuals from 221 groups with total direct contact of 96 hours, 53 minutes out of 132 hours, consisting of multi-males multi-females (173 encounters), multi males (18), solitary male (28) and solitary female (2). There were 13 behavioural activities recorded and the study revealed that macaques spent most of their time for moving (28.4%), foraging (25.2%), resting (19.1%) and grooming (12.3%). Results from ANOVA showed that the daily activity patterns of each categories within age-gender varied showing there was a relation between daily activity budget and age-gender of macaques. In addition, Chi-square test indicated there were interactions between age-gender and time on daily activity. In contrast, time did not have an effect on their activity pattern.&nbsp; Good wildlife management practices by understanding the behaviour of macaques in human settlements near degraded forests is crucial since habitat sharing by humans and macaques raise the concern of safety and health issues. The frequent encounter between this species increases transmission of some zoonotic diseases to humans such as the malaria parasite (<em>Plasmodium knowlesi)</em>.</p> Anna Wong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 165–183 165–183 Diversity of praying mantises (Insecta: Mantodea) in Bukit Piton Forest Reserve, Lahad Datu, Sabah <p>This study was the first attempt to investigate the praying mantis diversity and composition on a long term basis in a regenerating forest of Bukit Piton Forest Reserve. The study area was a disturbed forest which had been affected by logging activities and forest fires, and undergone a restoration programme. Twelve sampling sessions were carried out over a period of one year,&nbsp; from August 2016 to July 2017, totalling&nbsp; 144 sampling days and nights. Methods included light traps, baited traps, and manual searching. A total of 187 individuals belonging to 19 species were successfully collected. The species sampled represent approximately 16% of the species that occur in Borneo. Mantidae was the dominant family, accounting for about 53% of total species and 36% of total individuals. The dominant species was <em>Tropidomantis tenera</em> which belongs to the family Iridopterygidae and made up 27% of the total individuals.&nbsp; The diversity indices showed that the praying mantis cenosis in the area was moderately diverse. This study highlighted the importance of a regenerating forest for the preservation of a significant portion of the biodiversity. We hope that the information obtained from this study will contribute towards a better understanding of the diversity of this fascinating group of insects, as well as the importance of a regenerating forest as a habitat worthy of conservation efforts.</p> Nazirah Mustaffa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 185–196 185–196 Assessing the Relatedness of Abelmoschus Accessions using Morphological Characters <p>Character analysis of Okra (<em>Abelmoschus </em>[Medik.] species, Malvaceae) accessions was carried out using morphological data to evaluate their genetic distinction and relatedness. Seeds of five <em>Abelmoschus</em> accessions (NG/MR/01/10/002, A.E 3, NG/MR/MAY/09/009, NGAE-96-0065 and NG/OA/05/12/160) were obtained from the Gene Bank of National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Ibadan, Nigeria. Based on the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources standard descriptors for Okra, 16 qualitative morphological characters were selected based on their relevance to <em>Abelmoschus</em> breeding, crop distinction, utilization and conservation. The five accessions present significant differences with two of the accessions (NG/MR/MAY/09/009 and NG/OA/05/12/160) closely related and other three (NG/MR/01/10/002, A.E 3 and NGAE-96-0065) closely related too. Accessions NG/MR/01/10/002, A.E 3 and NGAE-96-0065 had medium or intermediate growth habit while accession NG/MR/MAY/09/009 and NG/OA/05/12/160 shows erect growth habit. General aspect of the stem, nature of branching, fruit pubescence, fruit shape, position of the fruit on the main stem, leaf shape, fruit colour, and fruit length at maturity had the most effect on observed relationship between the accessions. Scatter plots derived from the principal component analysis suggest moderate tendency of grouping with the genus where two distinct clusters were obtained from the dendrogram. Together, these results suggest that the five okra accessions may be the descendants of the two commonly cultivated <em>Abelmoschus</em> species in Southern Nigeria (i.e. <em>A</em>. <em>esculentus</em> and <em>A</em>. <em>caillei</em>).</p> Matthew C Ogwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 197–211 197–211 Effects of mechanical and acid scarification on germination performance of Schizolobium parahyba (Fabaceae – Caesalpinioideae) seeds <p>Improving seed germination of native species is fundamental for assisting restoration practices, particular in highly degraded ecosystems such as tropical moist forests. Tropical moist forests of Central and South America continue to decrease as a result of fragmentation and conversion of forested land to agriculture. <em>Schizolobium parahyba</em> is a pioneer legume tree species widely used in restoration practices due to its fast growth rate, nitrogen-fixing capacity, and wood properties. Seeds of this species exhibit low germination as a result of physical dormancy, which highly limits its propagation on a large scale. We evaluated the effects of mechanical and acid scarification treatments with solutions of sulfuric (10%, 20%) and chloridric (25%, 50%, 75%) on <em>Schizolobium parahyba </em>seed germination. Mechanically scarified seeds had higher germination percentage (92.5%) than seeds treated with chloridric acid (50%), sulfuric acid (33.13±.2.11%) or intact seeds (17.5%). Seeds soaked in 10% sulfuric acid for 1 and 5 minutes exhibited higher germination values than seeds soaked in 20% for 10 minutes. Seeds soaked in 75% and 50% chloridric acid solutions for 5 and 10 minutes had an overall higher and faster germination than seeds soaked in 25% for 1 minute. This study indicates that mechanical scarification and acid scarification with solutions of chloridric acid solutions of 50% and 75% can highly improve large-scale propagation of <em>S.parahyba</em> and thus assist habitat restoration and conservation practices in degraded moist tropical forests.</p> Ana Salazar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 213–227 213–227 Diversity of Frogs In Tawau Hills Park, Sabah, Malaysia <p>A study on the diversity of anurans was carried out via Visual Encounter Survey (VES) method in Tawau Hills Park (THP), from June 2009 to September 2010. Twenty-eight line transects were established and surveyed, resulting in 925 individuals from 51 species, representing six families. Eighteen species were new locality records for THP, bringing the total number of identified frogs to 68 species. These frogs occupy elevations from lowland area (200 m a.s.l.) at the headquarters of THP, Balong substation and Merotai substation to submontane area (&gt;900 m a.s.l.) at Mount Maria, Mount Lucia and Mount Magdalena. All 68 species recorded represent 62% of the total frog species found in Sabah, with 15% of them endemic to Borneo. Frog species in THP were dominated by Ranidae (39.4%) and Dicroglossidae (24.4%). <em>Limnonectes leporinus</em> was the most abundant species (10.2%), followed by <em>Meristogenys orphnocnemis</em> (10.1%). The high species diversity and richness in THP could be due to the rich topography of this park, which provides ample feeding, breeding and shelter for frogs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anna` Wong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 229–251 229–251 Establishing optimal conditions for nursery production and domestication of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore. <p><em>Crassocephalum crepidioides</em> (Benth.) S. Moore is a plant consumed as a green leaf vegetable in several regions of Benin. But the species is still not domesticated and is harvested from wild according to the seasons. The plant remains as an undervalued food plant in Benin. This study aims to find the optimal conditions for nursery production of this species for its better valorization and domestication in order to contribute towards reducing food insecurity. We tested seed germination capacity and seedling growth of <em>C. crepidioides</em> in a nursery. We used cow dung and poultry manure to fertilize the transplanting board before transplanting seedlings from the seedbed whereas control plots were kept without fertilization. In addition, we tested shade impact on seedlings considering two variants (under shade and out of shade). Seedlings were transplanted in the following three spacings (20x20 cm, 30x30 cm and 40x40 cm). We used two water doses (22 liters/day and 44 liters/day) to water each ​​3.30 m² seedbed. The freshly harvested seeds showed about 19 day’s latency with a germination rate to 15.10 % while conserved seeds showed a latency time to 5 days with a germination rate to 12.70 %. Fertilization and shade influenced significantly the growth of <em>C. crepidioides</em>. Cow dung and poultry manure are suitable for soil fertilization for better plant development. The dose of water supplied to the seedbeds and transplanting spacings during the dry season also significantly influenced the growth of <em>C. crepidioides</em>. We found that that the 20x20 cm transplanting spacing reduces evaporation and transpiration, which is better for plant development.</p> Justin Dossou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 253–266 253–266 Assessment of Spatial Variability and Temporal Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) at Lower Kinabatangan River Catchment, Sabah. <p>The spatial and temporal variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics and surface water quality in the Lower Kinabatangan River Catchment were determined between October 2015 and May 2016. The objectives of this study were: (i) to distinguish the DOM absorption characteristics and physicochemical quality of surface water draining from different types of land use: oil palm plantation (OP), secondary forest (SF) and semi-natural vegetation (SV); and to examine its temporal variations during dry and wet periods. The collected physicochemical parameters data was analysed and classified based on the Malaysian National Water Quality Standard (NWQS). Findings indicated all the parameters fall into Class I, except for pH, total suspended solids (TSS) and concentration dissolved oxygen (DO). Linear discriminant analysis has been applied to distinguished the physico-chemical and absorption DOM properties data into mutually-exclusive spatial and temporal groups. Interestingly, the pH, DO and total nitrogen values were exhibited as dominant parameters at SV during both low and high rainfall periods. The dominance of these parameters suggested that the spatially and temporally varied water quality were influenced by both natural processes (e.g precipitation rate) and anthropogenic factor (e.g land use change). Whereas, both absorption coefficients (a<sub>340</sub>) and spectral slope (S<sub>275-295</sub>) were more dominant at SF and OP respectively. This might be due to increasing terrestrial DOM loadings as well as significant degradation of DOM via microbial and/or photochemical reaction.</p> Norizati Murdin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 267–283 267–283 Description of New Pseudeustetha species from Malaysia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae s. str.) <p>The small oriental genus of Chrysomelidae, <em>Pseudeustetha</em> Jacoby, 1899 from Malaysia was studied. A total of eight species of the genus are recorded from Malaysia, of which seven are described as new to science: <em>Pseudeustetha minima</em>, <em>P. nakasekoi</em>, <em>P. rufohirsuta</em>, <em>P. sabahcola</em>, <em>P. sarawacensis</em>, <em>P. sinarutensis</em> and <em>P. unicolor</em>, n. spp. The occurrence of <em>P. hirsuta</em> (Jacoby) in Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak) and Peninsular Malaysia was not confirmed in this study. A tentative key to the 11 known species of the genus is provided.</p> Haruo Takizawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 285–305 285–305 Traditional Knowledge on Plants Utilization in Postpartum Care: An Ethnobotanical Study in Local Community of Cimande, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia <p>An ethnobotanical study was conducted in five villages in the vicinity of Cimande Resort, Bogor, West Java, predominantly occupied by the Sundanese people.&nbsp; Forty-eight species of plants were recorded in their application in postpartum care and four species of plants in the care of the newborns. “Jamu Godogan” or boiled herbs, taken by mothers on day 8-15 after birth, contained most diverse herbs of 11 plants species. Three species (Curcuma longa, Piper betle, and Plectranthus scutellarioides) have more than two utilization categories. Nine out of 50 species of utilized medicinal plants have not been registered in the Indonesian Medicinal Plants Index and Medicinal Plants Dictionary; thus, new records.</p> Septiani Dian Arimukti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-15 2019-10-15 16 307–322 307–322