Bycatch Estimates of Dugongs and Dolphins: Results from an Interview Survey of Fishermen in Brunei Bay, Malaysia

Authors

  • Nurul Hidayah Abdul Rahim Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Azzakirat Abdul Raman Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Azmi Marzuki Muda Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Saifullah Arifin Jaaman* Institute of Oceanography and Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia (* Corresponding Author: saifullahaj@umt.edu.my) https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4568-9385
  • Xuelei Zhang Marine Ecology Research Center, First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3791-125X

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51200/bjomsa.v7i.4192

Keywords:

Local ecological knowledge (LEK), endangered marine mammals, dugong, dolphin, Brunei Bay

Abstract

Bycatch refers to the unintentional capture of non-targeted animals during fishing activities.  Worldwide, bycatch poses a significant threat to marine mammal species. In the Southeast Asian region, information on bycatch is particularly scarce, and there is little indication that the issue is adequately addressed anywhere in the region. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted face-to-face interview surveys across fishing communities in the Malaysian side of the Brunei Bay. We collected two datasets of marine mammal bycatch incidences from two different groups of fishermen (N=90 of 356 reported dugong data, 0.3%, and N=62 of 146 reported dolphin data, 0.4%), to estimate the levels of mortalities of the marine mammals. More than four fifths (82.1%) of respondents reported that they have accidentally captured at least one marine mammal (25.0% dugong and 42.5% dolphin) throughout their lifetime as a fisherman, with the highest frequency of occurrence being reported by fishers using gillnets (53.5% and 38.7%, respectively). Our interview results suggest an annual bycatch of 0.22 (95% CI = 0.13 to 0.32) for dugongs and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.40 to 0.88) for dolphins in the Malaysian Brunei Bay. Findings from this study provides important data to guide fisheries resource managers in providing protection and conservation efforts the endangered marine mammal populations.

References

Ahmad-Kamil, E. I., Ramli, R., Jaaman, S. A., & Al-Obaidi, J. R. (2013). The effects of water parameters on monthly seagrass percentage cover in Lawas, East Malaysia. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/892746

ASCOBANS. (1997) Second Meeting of Parties to ASCOBANS: 17-19 November 1997, Bonn, Germany, p. 43. ASCOBANS. 67pp. Available online at https://www.ascobans.org/en/meeting/MOP2

Azizul, N., Jaaman, S. A., Haji-Ismail, F. D., Muda, A. M., Zhang, X, Muhamad, H. M, Momin, M. V., & Abdullah, B. (2022). Water surface behaviour of Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris (Owen in Grey, 1866) and influencing factors in the Bay of Brunei, Brunei Darussalam. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10, 1711, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111711

Bering, J., Gargan, H., Kuesel, J., Morrison, M., Mullaney, C., Read, A. J., Roady, S. E., & Rowe, A. (2022). Will unilateral action improve the global conservation status of marine mammals? A first analysis of the U.S Marine Mammal Protection Act’s Import Provisions Rule. Marine Policy, 135, 104832, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104832

Berkström, C., Papadopoulos, M., Jiddawi, N. S., & Nordlund, L. M. (2019). Fishers’ local ecological knowledge (LEK) on connectivity and seascape management. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 130, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00130

Bernos, T. A., Travouck, C., Ramasinoro, N., Fraser, D. J., & Mathevon, B. (2021). What can be learned from fishers’ perceptions for fishery management planning? Case study insights from Sainte-Marie, Madagascar. PLoS ONE, 16 (11), e0259792, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0259792

Briscoe, D. K., Hiatt, S., Lewison, R., & Hines, E. (2014) Modeling habitat and by-catch risk for dugongs in Sabah, Malaysia. Endangered Species Research 24, 237-247. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00600

Burton, R., & Riley, M. (2018). Traditional ecological knowledge from the internet? The case of Hay Meadows in Europe. Land Use Policy, 70, 334-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.10.014

CMS-UNEP. (2010). Project Manual – Dugong Questionnaire Survey. CMS-UNEP Abu Dhabi Office. United Arab Emirates. Available online at https://www.cms.int/dugong/sites/default/files/project_manual.pdf

DOFM (Department of Fisheries, Malaysia). (2018). Annual Fisheries Statistics 2018. Status of the Fisheries Sectors in Malaysia. Available online at: https://www.dof.gov.my/en/resources/i-extension-en/annual-statistics/

DOFS (Department of Fisheries Sabah). (2019). Summary of Annual Fisheries Statistics Sabah 2019. Available online at https://fishdept.sabah.gov.my/?q=en/fisheries-statistics

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations). (2009). Fishery and aquaculture country profiles – Malaysia. https://www.fao.org/figis/pdf/fishery/facp/131/en?title=FAO%20Fisheries%20%26amp%3B%20Aquaculture%20-%20Country%20Profile

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations). (2003). Monitoring, measurement and ssessment of fishing capacity – The Malaysian experience. https://www.fao.org/3/y4849e/y4849e.pdf

Farr, E. R., Stoll, J. S., & Beitl, C. M. (2018). Effects of fisheries management on local ecological knowledge. Ecology and Society, 23(3), 15. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-10344-230315

Ghanbari, S., & Turvey, S. T. (2022). Local ecological knowledge provides novel evidence on threats and declines for Caucasian grouse Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi in Arasbaran Biosphere Reserve, Iran. People and Nature, 4(6), 1536-1546. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10401

Haji-Ismail, F. D., Azizul, N., Jaaman, S. A., Muda, A. M., Momin, M. V., Abdullah, B., Zhang, X., & Muhamad, H. M. (2021). Seasonal occurrence, distribution and group size of Irrawaddy Dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) in the Bay of Brunei, Brunei Darussalam. Sains Malaysiana, 50(11), 3159-3169. http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5011-01

Hind, E., J. (2015). A review of the past, the present, and the future of fishers’ knowledge research: A challenge to established fisheries science. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 72 (2), 341-358. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu169

Hines, E., Adulyanukosol, K., Duffus, D., & Dearden, P. (2005). Community perspectives and conservation needs for Dugongs (Dugong dugon) along the Andaman Coast of Thailand. Environmental Management, 36, 654-664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-0287-8

Hines, E., Parr, L., Tan, U. M. T., Kwan, D., & Novak, A. (2008). Interviews about Dugongs and community conservation issues in the Myeik Archipelago of Myanmar. Sirenews: Newsletter of the IUCN Sirenia Specialist Group, 49, 9.

Jaaman, S. A. (2006). Marine Mammal Distribution and Interactions with Fisheries in East Malaysia. PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen, UK.

Jaaman, S. A., Ahmad-Kamil, E. I., Bali, J., Ibrahim, K., Jamal-Hisne, F. I., Mohd-Noor, N., Pilcher, N. J., Ponnampalam, L. S., Rajamani, L., & Syed Abdul Kadir, S. A. (2013). Dugong dugon: Status review on habitats, threats, and conservation initiatives in Malaysia. Working paper of the Second Signatory State Meeting (SS2) of the Dugong MoU and the International GEF Workshop of the Dugong and Seagrass Conservation Project. Best Western Premier F1 Hotel, Manila, Philippines, 19-22 February 2013.

Jaaman, S. A., Anyi, Y. U. L., & Ali, S. A. (eds). (1999). Lumba-lumba. Newsletter of Malaysian Marine Mammals and Whale Shark Working Group, 1(1). September 1999 (First Edition).

Jaaman, S. A., Bali, J., Hussain-Lee, A., Mohamad-Isa, S., & Tisen, O. B. (2010). A preliminary sighting record of shorebirds in Sundar Estuary, Lawas, Sarawak. In: Papers presented in the Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC) 10th. Hornbill Workshop: Managing Ecosystem for Sustainability, Mega Hotel, Miri, 15–17 December 2010.

Jaaman, S. A., Lah-Anyi, Y. U, & Pierce, G. (2008). Directed fisheries for dolphins and dugongs in Sabah, East Malaysia: past and present. Borneo Science, 23, 1-20.

Jaaman, S. A., Lah-Anyi, Y. U., & Pierce, G. (2009). The magnitude and sustainability of marine mammal by-catch in fisheries in East Malaysia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89(5), 907-920. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002531540800249X

Jaaman, S. A., Lah-Anyi, Y. U., & Tashi, Y. (2001). Recent Sightings of Marine Mammals and Whale Shark in Sarawak. In Bennett, E. L., and Chin, C. L. M. (eds) Hornbill Volume 5: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Workshop of the National Parks and Wildlife Division. Kuching, Malaysia: Sarawak Forestry Department, pp. 64-81.

Jefferson, T. A., Leatherwood, S., Shoda, L. K. M., & Pitman, R. L. (1992). Marine mammals of the Gulf of Mexico: A field guide for aerial and ship observers. College Station, Texas A&M University, Texas. 92pp.

Jefferson, T. A., Weir, C. R., Anderson, R. C., Balance, L. T., Kenney, R. D., & Kiszka, J. J. (2013). Global distribution of Risso's Dolphin Gampus griseus: A review and critical rvaluation. Mammal Review, 44(1), 56-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/mam.12008

Joseph, B., Ghazali, A., M., Shazili, N. A., & Chuan, O. M. (2018). The evaluation of Brunei Bay sediment cores sedimentation rate using 210Pb radiometric dDating technique. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 107-114. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i3.14.16870

Joseph, J., Nishizawa, H., Arshaad, W., M., Kadir, S. A. S., Jaaman, S. A., Bali, J., Jamaludin, N. A., & Katoh, M. (2016). Genetic stock compositions and natal origin of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Brunei Bay. Global Ecology and Conservation, 6, 16-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2016.01.003

Leithäuser, H., & Holzhacker, R. L. (2020). Local experience, knowledge, and community adaptations to environmental change: The case of a fishing village in Central Vietnam. Regional Environmental Change 20, 114, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-020-01703-9

López, A., Pierce, G. J., Santos, M. B., Gracia, J., & Guerra, A. (2003). Fishery by-catches of marine mammals in Galician Waters: Results from on-board observations and an interview survey of fishermen. Biological Conservation, 111(1), 25-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00244-6

Mahmud, A. I., Jaaman, S. A., Muda, A. M., Muhamad, H. M., Zhang, X., & Scapini, F. (2018). Factors influencing the behaviour of Irrawaddy Dolphins Orcaella Brevirostris (Owen in Gray, 1866) in Brunei Bay, Malaysia. Journal of Ethology 36, 169-180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10164-018-0549-9

Mahmud, A. I. (2016). Population Estimation and Behavioural patterns of Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris (Owen in Gray 1866) in the Brunei Bay, Malaysia. Master’s thesis, Erasmus Mundus Master Course in Tropical Biodiversity and Ecosystem), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu.

Marsh, H., O’Shea, T. J., & Reynolds III, J. E. (2011). Ecology and Conservation of Sirenia: Dugongs and Manatees. Cambridge University Press. 536p. ISBN 9780521888288.

Maunder, M. N., and Punt, A. E. (2004). Standardizing catch and effort data: A review of recent approaches. Fisheries Research, 70(2-3), 141-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2004.08.002

Minton, G., Zulkifli Poh, A. N., Peter, C., Porter, L., & Kreb, D. (2016). Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins in Borneo: A review of current knowledge with Emphasis on Sarawak. Advances in Marine Biology, 73, 141–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.amb.2015.07.003

Mintzer, V. J., Diniz, K., & Frazer, T. K. (2018). The use of aquatic mammals for bait in global fisheries. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, 191, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00191

Moore, J. E., Cox, T. M., Lewison, R. L., Read, A. J., Biorkland, R., McDonald, S. L., Crowder, L. B., Aruna, E., Ayissi, I., Espeut, P., Joynson-Hicks, C., Pilcher, N., Poonian, C. N. S., Solarin, B., & Kiszka, J. (2010). An interview-based approach to assess marine mammal and sea turtle captures in artisanal fisheries. Biological Conservation, 143(3), 795-805. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.023

Moore, J. E., Heinemann, D., Francis, T. B., Hammond, P. S., Long, K. J., Punt, A. E., Reeves, R. R., Sepúlveda, M., Sigurðsson, G. M., Siple, M. C., Vikingsson, G. A., Wade, P. R., Williams, R., & Zerbini, A. N. (2021). Estimating bycatch mortality for marine mammals: Concepts and best practices. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 752356, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.752356

Morizur, Y., Berrow, S. D., Tregenza, N. J. C., Couperus, A. S., & Pouvreau, S. (1999). Incidental catches of marine-mammals in pelagic trawl fisheries of the Northeast Atlantic. Fisheries Research, 41(3), 297-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00013-2

Muda, A. M. (2018). Abundance and Distribution of Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) in The Malaysian Waters of Brunei Bay, Borneo Islands. Master’s Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu.

Pilcher, N. J., Adulyanukosol, K., Das, H., Davis, P., Hines, E., Kwan, D., Marsh, H., Ponnampalam, L., & Reynolds, J. (2017). A low-cost solution for documenting distribution and abundance of endangered marine fauna and impacts from fisheries. PLoS ONE, 12(12), e0190021, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190021

Ponnampalam, L. S. (2012). Opportunistic observations on the distribution of cetaceans in the Malaysian South China, Sulu and Sulawesi Seas and an Updated Checklist of Marine Mammals in Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 60(1), 221-231.

Rajamani, L. (2013). Using community knowledge in data-deficient regions: Conserving the vulnerable Dugong Dugong Dugon in the Sulu Sea, Malaysia. Oryx, 47, 173–176. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605312000154

Rajamani, L., & Marsh, H. (2010). Using parallel regional and local-Scale initiatives to inform conservation management of rare wildlife: A case study of the Dugong (Dugong Dugon) in Sabah, Malaysia. Endangered Species Research 13, 17-23. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00310

Raman. A. A. (2017). Dugong (Dugong Dugon) abundance, distribution and its interaction with fisheries in the Malaysian waters of Brunei Bay, Borneo. Master’s Thesis. Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu.

Reeves, R. R., McClellan, K., & Werner, T. B. (2013). Marine mammal bycatch in gillnet and other entangling net fisheries, 1990 to 2011. Endangered Species Research, 20, 71-97. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00481

Vo, S. T., Pernetta, J. C., & Paterson, C. J. (2013). Status and trends in coastal habitats of the South China Sea. Ocean & Coastal Management, 85(Part B), 153-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.02.018

Wade, P. R., Long, K. J., Francis, T. B., Punt, A. E., Hammond, P. S., Heinemann, D., Moore, J. E., Reeves, R. R., Sepúlveda, M., Sullaway, G., Sigurðsson, G. M., Siple, M. C., Víkingsson, G. A., Williams, R. & Zerbini, A. N. (2021). Best practices for assessing and managing by-catch of marine mammals. Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 757330, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.757330

Published

2023-12-31

How to Cite

Rahim, N. H. A., Raman, A. A., Muda, A. M., Jaaman*, S. A., & Zhang, X. (2023). Bycatch Estimates of Dugongs and Dolphins: Results from an Interview Survey of Fishermen in Brunei Bay, Malaysia. Borneo Journal of Marine Science and Aquaculture (BJoMSA), 7, 30–54. https://doi.org/10.51200/bjomsa.v7i.4192
Total Views: 190 | Total Downloads: 169