PESTICIDE TOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS â€“ A Review
Keywords:oxidative stress, pesticide, nrf2, antioxidant, pollution
AbstractOxidative stress is an imbalance in redox coupling in the body. Lack of antioxidants to scavenge the reactive oxygen species produces adverse effects on health. The causes for an imbalance in redox coupling are multi-factorial. Though, reactive oxygen species are beneficial in the body, excessive generation and lack of proper scavenging may pose a threat. Both internal and external factors may elevate the level. Environmental pollution is a major contributor. Man-made chemicals; pesticides, heavy metals, carbon combustion products are blamed. Chronic exposures lead to disease processes through oxidative stress. They mediate pro-inflammatory cytokines and produce free radicals. Pro-oxidant to antioxidant miss-match leads to the adverse effects. Nrf2 activates a number of genes that encode the antioxidants. Glutamate cysteine ligase is activated in response to Nrf2 and it is a key enzyme for GSH production. Nrf2 functionality protects the cells from environmental pollutants. Nrf2 mediates the antioxidant response due to chemical insults, translocated in the cell nucleus. Oxidative stress is known to induce a number disease states; genetic abnormalities, carcinogenesis, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, neuro-degeneration - Parkinsonâ€™s and Alzheimerâ€™s syndrome. Pesticides are the major pollutants; studies confirm oxidative stress and environmental pollution need to be addressed for public welfare.
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