DASAR BRITISH DAN JEPUN TERHADAP SEKOLAH MELAYU DAN TAMIL SEBELUM TAHUN 1957

BRITISH AND JAPANESE POLICY TOWARD THE MALAY AND TAMIL SCHOOLS BEFORE 1957

Authors

  • PARAMESWARI KRISHNAN Fakulti Pendidikan dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Selangor, 45600 Selangor, Malaysia
  • J. HINDUJA JAYER RAMAN Jabatan Pengajian India, Fakulti Sastera dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur
  • SAID DARKASI Fakulti Pendidikan dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Selangor, 45600 Selangor, Malaysia
  • ROHINI KRISHNAN Fakulti Pendidikan dan Sains Sosial, Universiti Selangor, 45600 Selangor, Malaysia

Keywords:

Buruh Melayu, buruh Tamil, British, Jepun, estet/ladang, kampung, Malay labour, Tamil labour, Japanese

Abstract

ABSTRAK Sejarah pendidikan menjadi sangat penting dalam konteks Malaysia kerana kajiannya masih belum dilakukan secara meluas, sama ada sebelum mahupun selepas merdeka. Maka, adalah wajar dan penting bagi melihat polisi-polisi yang dilaksanakan oleh British dan Jepun dalam sistem pendidikan di Tanah Melayu bagi memahami sejarah pendidikan masyarakat pada zaman tersebut dan corak kehidupannya. Hal ini penting dalam memaparkan niat sebenar British mahupun Jepun dalam memperkenalkan pendidikan vernakular (British) dan pendidikan bercorak penjepunan (Jepun). Dalam hal ini, sektor industri perladangan sama ada getah atau kelapa merupakan penumpuan majoriti buruh Tamil yang datang ke Tanah Melayu dan orang Melayu dalam industri pertanian. Untuk mengekalkan buruh ini terus bekerja di kawasan perladangan dan kampung, British memperkenalkan pendidikan tahap yang paling asas sahaja. Jepun pula menggunakan dasar yang hampir berbeza daripada British, di mana mewajibkan semua sekolah untuk mengikut corak pendidikan Jepun. Sekolah vernakular diperkenalkan oleh British untuk memerintah masyarakat secara mudah dan dapat menjayakan tujuan ekonominya. Hal ini sedemikian kerana British sedar bahawa masyarakat yang kurang berpendidikan mudah untuk dijajah dan mereka tidak akan menentang atau menyoal pentadbiran British. Kajian ini secara keseluruhan akan melihat motif British dan Jepun di sebalik pengenalan dasar pendidikan serta menunjukkan keadaan sebenar sekolah Melayu dan Tamil pada waktu itu. Kajian ini bertujuan melihat dasar pecah dan perintah British terhadap sekolah Melayu dan Tamil, meninjau kesan-kesan penubuhan sekolah tersebut dan perkembangan seterusnya. Kajian ini juga bertujuan meninjau dasar Niponisasi Jepun dalam pendidikan. Pelbagai kaedah seperti kaedah perpustakaan, kaedah kajian Arkib Negara dengan merujuk fail dan dokumen rasmi kerajaan serta kaedah pemerhatian digunakan dalam kajian ini. Kajian ini sangat signifikan kerana memaparkan bahawa penubuhan sekolah Melayu dan Tamil bukan untuk kemajuan komuniti tersebut, malah ia adalah semata-mata untuk menjayakan rancangan ekonomi British dan Jepun semasa pentadbirannya.  

 

ABSTRACT The history of education has become very important in the Malaysian context because the study has not been done extensively either before or after independence. Therefore, it is important to look at the policies implemented by the British and the Japanese in Malaya education system in order to understand the history of the era of public education and patterns of life. This is important in displaying the real intentions of the British as well as the Japanese in introducing vernacular (British) education and Japanese patterned education. The majority Tamil labourers who came to Malaya to involved either rubber or oil and the Malays in the agricultural industry. To keep these labourers working in plantation and village areas, the British introduced only the most basic level of education. Japanese on the other hand uses a policy that is almost different from the British, which requires all schools to follow the pattern of Japanese education. Vernacular schools were introduced by the British to govern society easily and to achieve economic goals. This was so because the British were aware that the less educated society was easy to colonize and they would not oppose or question the British administration. This study will look at the overall British and Japanese motive behind the introduction of basic education as well as show the actual situation of Malay and Tamil schools at that time. This research aims to see the divide and rule policy of the British against the Malay and Tamil schools, reviewing the effects of the establishment and further development of the schools. This study also aims to review and Japanese Niponization policy in education. Various methods such as library method, National Archives research method with reference to official government files and documents as well as observation method used in this study. This study is significant because it shows that the establishment of Malay and Tamil schools not for the betterment of the community, but it is simply a plan of the British and Japanese to conquer the economy of Malaya.

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Published

2020-12-23

How to Cite

KRISHNAN, P. ., JAYER RAMAN, J. H., DARKASI, S. ., & KRISHNAN, R. . (2020). DASAR BRITISH DAN JEPUN TERHADAP SEKOLAH MELAYU DAN TAMIL SEBELUM TAHUN 1957: BRITISH AND JAPANESE POLICY TOWARD THE MALAY AND TAMIL SCHOOLS BEFORE 1957. Jurnal Kinabalu, 253. Retrieved from https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/ejk/article/view/2778

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