A Scoping Review of the Effectiveness of Control Interventions of Human and Canine Rabies in an Effort to Rationalise the One Health Approach
Keywords:Rabies, Effectiveness, One health, Control and Intervention
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), rabies is one of the 18 neglected tropical diseases, together with dengue, leprosy, and trachoma, among others. Despite being a vaccine-preventable disease, the latest estimate of annual human rabies mortality from a 2015 study is as high as 59,000 throughout 150 countries. In human rabies, more than 95% of the cases are due to dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority by fighting the disease at its animal source. World Health Organization (WHO), World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) have warranted the One Health framework with the objective of complete eradication of dog-related human rabies by the year 2030. In an effort to rationalise the One Health approach, this scoping review found 17 studies on assessing the effectiveness of control interventions of human and canine rabies. Different strategies were implemented based on the endemicity of rabies in a particular country. Overall, the combined strategies using the One Health approach, which allows effective participation and communication between different agencies, have shown promising results in reducing rabies cases. These strategies will hopefully realise the goal in the Global Strategic Plan to achieve zero canine-mediated human rabies death by the year 2030.