The Ethnobotanical Survey of Clove, Pepper, and Nutmeg and Their Utilization by Chinese and Indonesian People


  • Vera Budi Lestari Sihotang
  • Guang Yang
  • Xiulian Chi
  • Luqi Huang


spices, market, flavouring, medicine


An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the spices market of two provinces of China . This study aimed to describe the survey of spices sold and the availability of clove, nutmeg, and pepper in China and Indonesia markets. The study documented the knowledge of the utilization of pepper, clove, and nutmeg by Chinese and Indonesian people. Different communities based on their perceptions and experience use the same spice plants for many purposes. Unstructured interviews and literature study were also conducted to complement the data. Cloves, nutmeg, and pepper are the three kinds of main spices for the Chinese people. Indonesian people use nutmeg and clove for one particular type of cuisine, otherwise pepper is used in a variety of dishes, to provide a spicy flavour. Due to the medicinal properties of clove and nutmeg, Indonesian and Chinese people use clove not only as a spice but also for medicine. Apart from using it as a spice and medicine, Indonesian people also use nutmeg for snacks.