Highly Versatile, Non-Invasive Method for Collecting Buccal DNA from Free-Ranging Non-Human Primates


  • Aru Toyoda
  • Kazunari Matsudaira
  • Tamaki Maruhashi
  • Suchinda Malaivijitnond
  • Yoshi Kawamoto




Non-invasive DNA collection, Microsatellite markers, Quantitative real-time PCR, Allelic dropout


Non-invasive techniques for collection of DNA samples of suitable quality and quantity are important for improving the efficiency of genetic wildlife research. The development of a non-invasive method for collection of DNA samples from wild stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) is described herein. Sterilized polyester rope was cut into 10 cm pieces, which were then soaked in a 20% sugar solution to bait individuals. Rope swabs were immediately collected and transferred to a lysis buffer solution after subjects had picked up, chewed and discarded them. DNA was later extracted from the buffer. Quantitative real-time PCR and both allelic dropout and genotype failure rates were used to compare the quantity and quality of the buccal DNA samples to those of intestinal slough cell DNA samples collected from freshly dropped feces. The buccal samples yielded significantly more DNA (27.1 ± 33.8 ng/μL) than did the fecal samples (11.4 ± 15.4 ng/μL) and exhibited lower allelic dropout and genotyping failure rates for the 10 autosomal microsatellites investigated. Buccal cell collection was also simple, inexpensive, reliable and less time-consuming compared to fecal sampling. Thus, this method should facilitate genome-wide studies of non-human primates and other wildlife species.




How to Cite

Toyoda, A. ., Matsudaira, K. ., Maruhashi, T. ., Malaivijitnond, S. ., & Kawamoto, Y. . (2021). Highly Versatile, Non-Invasive Method for Collecting Buccal DNA from Free-Ranging Non-Human Primates. Journal of Tropical Biology & Conservation (JTBC), 18, 251–267. https://doi.org/10.51200/jtbc.v18i.3460
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