DILEMA EKONOMI WANG DALAM MASYARAKAT MELAYU: PENUBUHAN SYARIKAT PERNIAGAAN DAN KOPERASI DI TANAH MELAYU PADA AWAL ABAD KE-20

The Dilemma of Money Economy in the Malay Society: The Establishment of Business Corporation and Cooperative Societies in the Federation of Malaya in the Early 20th Century

Authors

  • A RAHMAN TANG ABDULLAH Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
  • MOHD. SOHAIMI ESA Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Pusat Penataran Ilmu dan Bahasa, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51200/manu.v32i2.3399

Keywords:

dilema Melayu, ekonomi wang, Tanah Melayu, syarikat perniagaan Melayu, koperasi, Malay dilemma, the money economy, Federation of Malaya, Malay business corporation, cooperative societies

Abstract

Makalah ini membincangkan dilema ekonomi wang masyarakat Melayu dengan rujukan kepada permasalahan yang berhubung kait dengan penubuhan syarikat perniagaan dan koperasi milikan orang Melayu pada awal abad ke-20. Dalam konteks sejarah, fenomena kapitalisme telah berkembang dengan penggunaan wang dalam masyarakat Melayu untuk aktiviti ekonomi yang jelas dikesan, terutamanya dalam kalangan aristokrat, komuniti perniagaan dan golongan rakyat. Golongan pertukangan Melayu adalah golongan bawahan yang sedia terdedah kepada ekonomi wang telah berusaha untuk menubuhkan syarikat perniagaan milikan orang Melayu dengan cubaan pengumpulan dana sebagai modal. Namun, usaha ini gagal direalisasikan walaupun sambutan di peringkat permulaan amat menggalakkan. Fenomena ini juga telah berkembang dalam kalangan kaum tani kerana penggunaan wang dalam aktiviti pertanian telah mengubah orientasi ekonomi kaum tani daripada sara diri kepada komersial. Perubahan orientasi ekonomi ini sebaliknya telah menimbulkan masalah belenggu hutang berterusan dalam kalangan rakyat bawahan Melayu. Bagi membantu rakyat Melayu, mekanisme yang dilihat boleh mengurangkan masalah hutang dalam kalangan kaum tani ialah dengan penubuhan koperasi pinjaman luar bandar yang akan membolehkan mereka mendapat pinjaman bagi membiayai operasi pertanian, membebaskan diri dari penindasan pemiutang serta memupuk sikap menyimpan wang dalam kalangan mereka. Perkara ini dapat dicapai dengan melaburkan sejumlah wang yang kecil dalam sesebuah koperasi yang kemudiannya akan memberikan keuntungan. Perbincangan dua aspek ini menunjukkan dilema masyarakat Melayu untuk menyesuaikan diri dalam menghadapi perubahan orientasi ekonomi wang yang berlandaskan kapitalisme. Perbincangan ini meliputi analisis bahan-bahan sejarah sezaman yang merangkumi surat khabar Melayu dan dokumen pentadbiran British.

 

This article discusses the dilemma of the money economy in Malay society concerning the establishment of Malay business corporations and cooperative societies in the early 20th century. In the historical context, the phenomenon of capitalism was reflected through the penetration of the money economy into the Malay economic activities evident among the Malay aristocrats, business communities and the commoners. The Malay artisans were among the first lower class community who were exposed to the money economy. However, attempts to raise funds to establish corporations owned by these Malays failed despite the encouraging initial support. This phenomenon of money economy had also expanded into the peasant community whereby the utilisation of money economy in agricultural activities had changed the self-sufficiency orientation into commercialism. Nevertheless, this change had caused many Malay peasants to be involved with indebtedness. A mechanism that could assist these peasants with the problem of indebtedness was to establish rural credit cooperative societies that would enable them to obtain loans to fund their agricultural operations, unbound themselves from indebtedness and cultivate the habit of saving. These were achievable by investing in cooperative societies that would eventually generate profits. The discussion on these two aspects shows the dilemma faced by the Malays in adapting themselves to the change in economic orientation based on capitalism. This discussion is based on content analysis of contemporaneous historical sources comprising Malay newspapers and British administrative documents.

Author Biography

MOHD. SOHAIMI ESA, Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Pusat Penataran Ilmu dan Bahasa, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.



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Published

2021-12-16

How to Cite

A RAHMAN TANG ABDULLAH, & MOHD. SOHAIMI ESA. (2021). DILEMA EKONOMI WANG DALAM MASYARAKAT MELAYU: PENUBUHAN SYARIKAT PERNIAGAAN DAN KOPERASI DI TANAH MELAYU PADA AWAL ABAD KE-20: The Dilemma of Money Economy in the Malay Society: The Establishment of Business Corporation and Cooperative Societies in the Federation of Malaya in the Early 20th Century. MANU Jurnal Pusat Penataran Ilmu Dan Bahasa, 32(2), 35–60. https://doi.org/10.51200/manu.v32i2.3399
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