ELEMEN PAN-ISLAMISME DALAM HUBUNGAN EMPAYAR UTHMANIYYAH DENGAN KERAJAAN KESULTANAN JOHOR DARI ABAD KE-18 MASIHI HINGGA PERANG DUNIA PERTAMA

ELEMENTS OF PAN-ISLAMISM IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SULTANATE OF JOHORE FROM THE 18TH CENTURY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Authors

  • MOHAMAD SHAUKHI MOHD RADZI Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
  • MOHD SOHAIMI ESA Pusat Penataran Ilmu dan Bahasa, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
  • ZAINI OTHMAN Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Keywords:

sejarah diplomatik, dunia Islam, pan-Islamisme, Johor, Uthmaniyyah, Diplomatic history, Islamic world, pan-Islamism

Abstract

Hubungan antara Empayar Uthmaniyyah dan Kerajaan Kesultanan Melayu di Nusantara pada abad ke-16 sehingga Perang Dunia Pertama merupakan perhubungan yang diasaskan oleh semangat ummatik atau Pan-Islamisme. Ia terbukti menerusi catatan sejarah yang menunjukkan Empayar Uthmaniyyah yang menjadi kuasa tertinggi khilafah umat Islam pada abad-abad berkenaan bertanggungjawab dalam melindungi Kerajaan Kesultanan Melayu di Nusantara. Kerajaan Kesultanan Johor bermula pada abad ke-18 Masihi telah menjalinkan hubungan yang rapat dengan empayar tersebut. Penubuhan konsulat Uthmaniyyah di Singapura pada tahun 1864 dan pelantikan wakil empayar tersebut dalam kalangan masyarakat tempatan menunjukkan betapa rapatnya hubungan antara kedua-dua kuasa Islam tersebut. Antara aspek yang begitu ditekankan dalam perhubungan tersebut ialah persoalan keselamatan perdagangan, jemaah haji ke Mekah, bantuan armada laut dan sebagainya. Ternyata, perhubungan yang diasaskan ini telah memberi kesan kepada kuasa Barat terutamanya British dan Belanda khususnya kekhuatiran bersabit penularan semangat anti-penjajahan di Asia Tenggara, khususnya di Tanah Melayu dan Indonesia, sekali gus membuktikan semangat pan-Islamisme menjadi asas kepada perhubungan yang telah dijalinkan tersebut. Dari aspek metode kajian, penulis menggunakan metode kualitatif, iaitu perolehan dan analisis sumber-sumber sejarah daripada sumber kepustakaan, sumber arkib serta laporan dan artikel kerja para sarjana yang telah diterbitkan.

 

The relationship between the Ottoman empire and the imperial government of the Malay Archipelago in the 16th century until the First World War was founded by the spirit of relationship ummatic or Pan-Islamism. It is proved by the historical record shows that the Ottoman Empire became the supreme power of the caliphate of Islam in the centuries undertakes to protect the imperial government of the Malay Archipelago. The government of the Johore sultanate began in the 18th century and had close ties with the empire. The establishment of the Ottoman consulate in Singapore in 1864 and the appointment of representatives of the empire among the local community showed how close the relationship was between the two Islamic powers. Among the aspects that are so emphasized in the relationship are the question of trade security, pilgrims to Mecca, naval assistance and so on. It turns out that the relationship was founded affects the Western powers, especially Britain and the Netherlands in particular concerns related spreading spirit of anti-colonialism in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaya and Indonesia. It turns out that the spirit of pan-Islamism is the basis of the relationship that has been established. In terms of research methods, the author uses a qualitative method that is the acquisition and analysis of historical sources from library sources, archival sources as well as reports and papers of scholars that have been published.

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Published

2020-12-22

How to Cite

MOHD RADZI, M. S. ., ESA, M. S. ., & OTHMAN, Z. . (2020). ELEMEN PAN-ISLAMISME DALAM HUBUNGAN EMPAYAR UTHMANIYYAH DENGAN KERAJAAN KESULTANAN JOHOR DARI ABAD KE-18 MASIHI HINGGA PERANG DUNIA PERTAMA: ELEMENTS OF PAN-ISLAMISM IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SULTANATE OF JOHORE FROM THE 18TH CENTURY TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR. Jurnal Kinabalu, 23. Retrieved from https://jurcon.ums.edu.my/ojums/index.php/ejk/article/view/2477

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